Luke 22:30
That you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(30) That ye may eat and drink at my table.—The promise is the same as that implied in what had been already said in Luke 22:16.

And sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.—See Note on Matthew 19:28. The repetition of the promise at the moment when apparent failure was close at hand, is significant as carrying the words into a higher region of symbolic meaning. Not on any thrones of earth were those disciples to sit, any more than the Master was to sit on the throne of His father David in an earthly Jerusalem.

22:21-38 How unbecoming is the worldly ambition of being the greatest, to the character of a follower of Jesus, who took upon him the form of a servant, and humbled himself to the death of the cross! In the way to eternal happiness, we must expect to be assaulted and sifted by Satan. If he cannot destroy, he will try to disgrace or distress us. Nothing more certainly forebodes a fall, in a professed follower of Christ, than self-confidence, with disregard to warnings, and contempt of danger. Unless we watch and pray always, we may be drawn in the course of the day into those sins which we were in the morning most resolved against. If believers were left to themselves, they would fall; but they are kept by the power of God, and the prayer of Christ. Our Lord gave notice of a very great change of circumstances now approaching. The disciples must not expect that their friends would be kind to them as they had been. Therefore, he that has a purse, let him take it, for he may need it. They must now expect that their enemies would be more fierce than they had been, and they would need weapons. At the time the apostles understood Christ to mean real weapons, but he spake only of the weapons of the spiritual warfare. The sword of the Spirit is the sword with which the disciples of Christ must furnish themselves.See the notes at Matthew 19:28. 30. eat and drink, &c.—(See Lu 22:16 and see on [1724]Lu 18:28, &c.). See Poole on "Luke 22:28" That ye may eat, and drink, at my table, in my kingdom,.... In the Gospel dispensation, or Gospel church state, in which Christ has a table, called the table of the Lord, 1 Corinthians 10:21 which is the Lord's supper, and is a table well furnished with the best of provisions, his flesh and blood, of which believers may eat and drink with a hearty welcome; Christ himself being present to sup with them: and in his personal reign on earth, where will be the marriage supper of the Lamb, to which all the saints will be called; and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and be regaled with joys and pleasures not to be expressed: and in the ultimate glory, when the Lamb shall feed them, and shall lead them to fountains of water; and they shall never hunger nor thirst more, but shall have fulness of joy, and be satiated with pleasures that will never fade nor end:

and sit on thrones; expressive of the great honour and dignity they were raised to, both in this, and the other world, from a low and mean estate, being before as beggars on the dunghill, now among princes, and on thrones, even on the same throne with Christ; see 1 Samuel 2:8

judging the twelve tribes of Israel; doctrinally and ministerially; accusing the Jews, and arraigning them for the crucifixion of Christ; passing sentence upon them, and condemning them, and declaring that they should be damned for their disbelief and rejection of him; See Gill on Matthew 19:28.

That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Luke 22:30. καθήσεσθε, ye shall sit, the judicial function the main thing, the feasting a subordinate feature; hence stated in an independent proposition (καθήσεσθε not dependent on ἵνα).—δώδεκα, twelve tribes, and twelve to rule over them, the defection of Judas not taken into account. The promise is given in that respect as if spoken on another occasion (Matthew 19:28). This generous eulogy of the disciples for their fidelity has the effect of minimising the fault mentioned just before. Lk. was aware of the fact. It is another instance of his “sparing of the Twelve”.30. sit on thrones] Our Lord here perhaps designedly omitted the word “twelve,” Matthew 19:28 (Revelation 3:21).

judging] “The saints shall judge the world,” 1 Corinthians 6:2. But the clause is omitted in some MSS.Luke 22:30. Ἵνα ἐσθίητε, that ye may eat) Not as those that serve. See Luke 22:27.—ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζηε μου, at My table) This is put in antithesis to the table of “the goodman of the house.” See Luke 22:12.—καθίσησθε, ye may sit) in My kingdom. See Matthew 19:28 [“In the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also,” etc.].—φυλὰς, tribes) Does this mean, that they shall judge each one tribe [there being an apostle apiece for each of the Twelve tribes].Verse 30. - That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. While the words just considered (ver. 29) referred to a success and a reward, the scene of which was to be this world, the Master now continues his promises of reward to his chosen faithful followers - a reward which will be their blessed portion in eternal life, which will follow this. First, the endless bliss to be shared with him is pictured under the old favourite Jewish image of the heavenly banquet; and second, in that heavenly realm a special place of honor and a distinct work is promised to these his chosen faithful servants.
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