Exodus 28:14
And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches.
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(14) Chains . . . at the ends.—Rather, chains of equal length, or, perhaps, of wreathen work.

Of wreathen work.—Heb., after the manner of a rope. Such chains are often seen round the necks of Persian officials in the Persepolitan sculptures, and appear also to have been used by the grandees of Egypt. They were composed of a number of gold wires twisted together. The chains spoken of in this place are the same as those mentioned in Exodus 28:22-25. Their object was to attach the two upper corners of the breastplate to the upper part of the ephod.

28:6-14 This richly-wrought ephod was the outmost garment of the high priest; plain linen ephods were worn by the inferior priests. It was a short coat without sleeves, fastened close to the body with a girdle. The shoulder-pieces were buttoned together with precious stones set in gold, one on each shoulder, on which were engraven the names of the children of Israel. Thus Christ, our High Priest, presents his people before the Lord for a memorial. As Christ's coat had no seam, but was woven from the top throughout, so it was with the ephod. The golden bells on this ephod, by their preciousness and pleasant sound, well represent the good profession that the saints make, and the pomegranates the fruit they bring forth.Rather, two chains of pure gold shalt thou make of wreathen work, twisted like cords. They were more like cords of twisted gold wire than chains in the ordinary sense of the word. Such chains have been found in Egyptian tombs.6-14. ephod—It was a very gorgeous robe made of byssus, curiously embroidered, and dyed with variegated colors, and further enriched with golden tissue, the threads of gold being either originally interwoven or afterwards inserted by the embroiderer. It was short—reaching from the breast to a little below the loins—and though destitute of sleeves, retained its position by the support of straps thrown over each shoulder. These straps or braces, connecting the one with the back, the other with the front piece of which the tunic was composed, were united on the shoulder by two onyx stones, serving as buttons, and on which the names of the twelve tribes were engraved, and set in golden encasements. The symbolical design of this was, that the high priest, who bore the names along with him in all his ministrations before the Lord, might be kept in remembrance of his duty to plead their cause, and supplicate the accomplishment of the divine promises in their favor. The ephod was fastened by a girdle of the same costly materials, that is, dyed, embroidered, and wrought with threads of gold. It was about a handbreadth wide and wound twice round the upper part of the waist; it fastened in front, the ends hanging down at great length (Re 1:13). At the ends, or, with ends; i.e. not like chains that are fastened about one’s neck or arm, which seem to have no end; but two distinct chains, with two several ends, both hanging downward: compare Exodus 28:22. The Syriac render it double, others equal, or of equal length.

And two chains of pure gold at the ends,.... The use of which was to hang the breast plate on, after described; one end of them was fastened to rings on the ouches in the shoulder pieces, and the other end to rings on the breastplate, and thus it hung:

of wreathen work shall thou make them; these chains were not made after the manner of circles or ringlets coupled together, as chains usually are, but of golden wires twisted together as a rope is twisted

and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches; to the ouches on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, in which the onyx stones were set, very probably to rings that were in these ouches.

And two chains of pure gold {g} at the ends; of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches.

(g) Of the bosses.

14. put] i.e. fasten.

Verse 14. - At the ends. The meaning of the Hebrew word migaloth is very doubtful. Jarchi and Rosemuller approve of the rendering of our translators. Geddes, Boothroyd, and Dathe render "chains of equal length." Gesenius, Kalisch, Canon Cook, and others, believe the true meaning to be "wreathed," or "of wreathen work," so that the next clause, "after the manner of a rope," would be simply exegetic. Of wreathen work. Literally, "after the manner of a rope." Cords of twisted gold wire were frequently used, instead of chains, by the Egyptians. Exodus 28:14There were also to be made for the ephod two (see Exodus 28:25) golden plaits, golden borders (probably small plaits in the form of rosettes), and two small chains of pure gold: "close shalt thou make them, corded" (lit., work of cords or strings), i.e., not formed of links, but of gold thread twisted into cords, which were to be placed upon the golden plaits or fastened to them. As these chains served to fasten the choshen to the ephod, a description of them forms a fitting introduction to the account of this most important ornament upon the state-dress of the high priest.
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