Nevertheless these you shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the cloven hoof; as the camel, and the hare, and the coney: for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; therefore they are unclean to you.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
fallow deer—The Hebrew word (Jachmur) so rendered, does not represent the fallow deer, which is unknown in Western Asia, but an antelope (Oryx leucoryx), called by the Arabs, jazmar. It is of a white color, black at the extremities, and a bright red on the thighs. It was used at Solomon's table.
wild goat—The word akko is different from that commonly used for a wild goat (1Sa 24:2; Ps 104:18; Pr 5:19), and it is supposed to be a goat-deer, having the body of a stag, but the head, horns, and beard of a goat. An animal of this sort is found in the East, and called Lerwee [Shaw, Travels].
pygarg—a species of antelope (Oryx addax) with white buttocks, wreathed horns two feet in length, and standing about three feet seven inches high at the shoulders. It is common in the tracks which the Israelites had frequented [Shaw].
wild ox—supposed to be the Nubian Oryx, which differs from the Oryx leucoryx (formerly mentioned) by its black color; and it is, moreover, of larger stature and more slender frame, with longer and more curved horns. It is called Bekkar-El-Wash by the Arabs.
chamois—rendered by the Septuagint Cameleopard; but, by others who rightly judge it must have been an animal more familiar to the Hebrews, it is thought to be the Kebsch (Ovis tragelaphus), rather larger than a common sheep, covered not with wool, but with reddish hair—a Syrian sheep-goat.Leviticus 11:3; see Gill on Leviticus 11:4; see Gill on Leviticus 11:5; see Gill on Leviticus 11:6; see Gill on Leviticus 11:7; see Gill on Leviticus 11:8. Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the cloven hoof; as the camel, and the hare, and the coney: for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; therefore they are unclean unto you.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)7. Nevertheless] Not raḳ with which qualifications to laws are introduced by D (see on Deuteronomy 10:15, Deuteronomy 12:15 f.) but ’ak, Deuteronomy 16:5, Deuteronomy 18:20, cp. Deuteronomy 12:22.
camel, hare, rock-badger] In Leviticus 11:4-6 taken separately and each with a repetition of the formula because it cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof. The camel chews the cud but its hoof is only partly cloven (see on Deuteronomy 14:6): sacrificed and eaten by Nabateans and ancient Arabs (Wellhausen, Reste Arab. Heid. 112, W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem. 201, 263, 320) though forbidden to Christian Arabs because of its use in heathen rites (id. 265), the camel is still eaten in Arabia (Burton, Pilgr. to Med. and Mecca, ii. 217, Doughty, ii. 209, 345, Musil, Edom, i. 247, Ethn. Ber. 71, 150, 423, 453 f.); taking the place of the ox of the settled Semites (see on Deuteronomy 14:4).—The hare, ’arnebeth, Ar. ’arnob, does not chew the cud and its feet are neither hoofed nor cleft; there are several species in and round Syria (Tr. 8 f., who singles out the lepus syriacus), and the beast is common in Arabia, where it is eaten (Doughty, i. 70, 567, ii. 238); hare’s bone, foot and head were used as amulets (W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem. 362, G. Jacob, op. cit. 20).—The rock-badger, shaphan, Ar. wabr and ṭubsun; procavia (hyrax) syriaca (Tristram, 1) does not chew the cud. It seems, however, to the observer to chew the cud: ‘both the jerboa and the wabr ruminate, say the hunters, because they are often shot with the cud in their mouth’ (Doughty, ii. 238). It is eaten by all the nomads (id. i. 127); ‘about the size of a small rabbit and has a superficial resemblance to that rodent.… The zoological position of the order is obscure, there are 14 species’ (Shipley, E.B. ‘Coney,’ which see for further information). A.V. and R.V. coney, Old Eng. for rabbit. Driver (Deuteronomy 3 p. xxii) suggests the translation rock-rabbit, a name given to an allied species of the Hyrax (H. Capensis) about the Cape of Good Hope.Deuteronomy 14:1 and Deuteronomy 14:2), nor to defile themselves by unclean food (vv. 3-21). Both of these were opposed to their calling. To bring this to their mind, Moses introduces the laws which follow with the words, "ye are children to the Lord your God." The divine sonship of Israel was founded upon its election and calling as the holy nation of Jehovah, which is regarded in the Old Testament not as generation by the Spirit of God, but simply as an adoption springing out of the free love of God, as the manifestation of paternal love on the part of Jehovah to Israel, which binds the son to obedience, reverence, and childlike trust towards a Creator and Father, who would train it up into a holy people. The laws in Deuteronomy 14:1 are simply a repetition of Leviticus 19:28 and Leviticus 21:5. למת, with reference to, or on account of, a dead person, is more expressive than לנפשׁ (for a soul) in Leviticus 19:28. The reason assigned for this command in Deuteronomy 14:2 (as in Deuteronomy 7:6) is simply an emphatic elucidation of the first clause of Deuteronomy 14:1. (On the substance of the verse, see Exodus 19:5-6).
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