So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they were written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah, who were carried away to Babylon for their transgression.Rather, "So all Israel were reckoned ... the kings of Israel. And Judah was carried away captive to Babylon for their transgressions."
Now the first inhabitants that dwelt in their possessions in their cities were, the Israelites, the priests, Levites, and the Nethinims.The first inhabitants - i. e. the first inhabitants of the holy land after the return from the captivity. They are enumerated under four heads:
(1) Israelites, i. e. the mass of the laity, whether belonging to the ten tribes or the two;
(3) Levites; and
(4) the lowest order of the ministry, the Nethinims.
These last, whose name is derived from a root "to give," were a sort of sacred slaves - persons "given" to the Levites to perform the more laborious duties of the sanctuary. Some had been "given" as early as the time of Moses Numbers 31:47; and the number afterward increased Joshua 9:23; Ezra 8:20. At the time of the return from the captivity, owing to the small number of Levites who came back Ezra 2:40-42, the services of the Nethinims became very important. They are mentioned under the name of Nethinims only in Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah.
And in Jerusalem dwelt of the children of Judah, and of the children of Benjamin, and of the children of Ephraim, and Manasseh;The correspondence and the diversity between the account here and in Nehemiah Neh. 11:4-19 are explained by the probability that both writers drew from a common and fuller document. They selected, in some instances, different names, or names which are now different through corruption; and they frequently expressed the genealogies of the same persons differently, both going on the principle of compression by means of omissions, but omitting from their lists different links of the chain.
Uthai the son of Ammihud, the son of Omri, the son of Imri, the son of Bani, of the children of Pharez the son of Judah.
And of the Shilonites; Asaiah the firstborn, and his sons.
And of the sons of Zerah; Jeuel, and their brethren, six hundred and ninety.
And of the sons of Benjamin; Sallu the son of Meshullam, the son of Hodaviah, the son of Hasenuah,
And Ibneiah the son of Jeroham, and Elah the son of Uzzi, the son of Michri, and Meshullam the son of Shephathiah, the son of Reuel, the son of Ibnijah;
And their brethren, according to their generations, nine hundred and fifty and six. All these men were chief of the fathers in the house of their fathers.The discrepancy between the numbers here and in Nehemiah Neh 11:8 may arise from corruption. So in 1 Chronicles 9:13, 1 Chronicles 9:22.
And of the priests; Jedaiah, and Jehoiarib, and Jachin,"Jedaiah," "Jehoiarib," and "Jachin," are not here names of individuals but of priestly families. From 1 Chronicles 24:7-17, it appears that Jehoiarib was the original head of the first "course," Jedaiah of the second shift, and Jachin of the twenty-first shift.
And Azariah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, the ruler of the house of God;
And Adaiah the son of Jeroham, the son of Pashur, the son of Malchijah, and Maasiai the son of Adiel, the son of Jahzerah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Meshillemith, the son of Immer;
And their brethren, heads of the house of their fathers, a thousand and seven hundred and threescore; very able men for the work of the service of the house of God.
And of the Levites; Shemaiah the son of Hasshub, the son of Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, of the sons of Merari;
And Bakbakkar, Heresh, and Galal, and Mattaniah the son of Micah, the son of Zichri, the son of Asaph;
And Obadiah the son of Shemaiah, the son of Galal, the son of Jeduthun, and Berechiah the son of Asa, the son of Elkanah, that dwelt in the villages of the Netophathites.
And the porters were, Shallum, and Akkub, and Talmon, and Ahiman, and their brethren: Shallum was the chief;
Who hitherto waited in the king's gate eastward: they were porters in the companies of the children of Levi.Who hitherto waited - Translate, "Who to this day waits. These were the porters in the stations of the sons of Levi." The words of the first clause refer to Shallum, and imply that, whereas Shallum (or his house) had originally the general superintendence of the temple gates, a change had been made when the author wrote, and Shallum's charge had become the east gate only. The second clause means; "these were the porters in those fixed stations at the outer gates of the Temple, which corresponded to the camp stations of the Levites who guarded the tabernacle in the early times."
And Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah, and his brethren, of the house of his father, the Korahites, were over the work of the service, keepers of the gates of the tabernacle: and their fathers, being over the host of the LORD, were keepers of the entry.Shallum the son of Kore - A different person from the Shallum of 1 Chronicles 9:17, and with a different office, namely, the guarding the inner doors of the temple. The original Shallum, Shelemaiah, or Meshelemaiah, was a Levite of the time of David 1 Chronicles 26:14. His descendants were still called by his name, but had now a more important charge assigned to them.
And Phinehas the son of Eleazar was the ruler over them in time past, and the LORD was with him.
And Zechariah the son of Meshelemiah was porter of the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
All these which were chosen to be porters in the gates were two hundred and twelve. These were reckoned by their genealogy in their villages, whom David and Samuel the seer did ordain in their set office.The porters, like the singers Nehemiah 12:29, dwelt for the most part in the villages round Jerusalem. They were the descendants of those originally selected for the work by David. David's arrangements are here regarded as having had the sanction of Samuel - which would imply that he planned them in the lifetime of Saul, while he was still a fugitive and an outlaw.
So they and their children had the oversight of the gates of the house of the LORD, namely, the house of the tabernacle, by wards.
In four quarters were the porters, toward the east, west, north, and south.
And their brethren, which were in their villages, were to come after seven days from time to time with them.See the marginal references. If the number of warders was, as stated in Nehemiah (Nehemiah 11:19) 172 (i. e. 168 besides the four chief warders), and the number employed at any one time was, as under David 1 Chronicles 26:17-18, twenty-four, then the turn of the courses to keep ward came every seven weeks.
For these Levites, the four chief porters, were in their set office, and were over the chambers and treasuries of the house of God.Rather, "For the four chief porters, who were themselves Levites, were in trust, who also had the charge of the chambers, etc." A contrast seems intended between the four chief porters, whose charge was constant, and the remainder, who kept watch by turns.
And they lodged round about the house of God, because the charge was upon them, and the opening thereof every morning pertained to them.
And certain of them had the charge of the ministering vessels, that they should bring them in and out by tale.By tale - literally, "by number." The vessels for service taken out of the treasury were counted, that the same number should be returned to the treasury after the service was over,
Some of them also were appointed to oversee the vessels, and all the instruments of the sanctuary, and the fine flour, and the wine, and the oil, and the frankincense, and the spices.
And some of the sons of the priests made the ointment of the spices.
And Mattithiah, one of the Levites, who was the firstborn of Shallum the Korahite, had the set office over the things that were made in the pans.Mattithiah ... the first-born of Shallum the Korahite - This Shallum would seem to be the person mentioned in 1 Chronicles 9:19, whose actual first-born was Zechariah 1 Chronicles Zechariah 26:2. Mattithiah may have been his eldest lineal descendant at the time here spoken of.
And other of their brethren, of the sons of the Kohathites, were over the shewbread, to prepare it every sabbath.
And these are the singers, chief of the fathers of the Levites, who remaining in the chambers were free: for they were employed in that work day and night.The singers - No names follow, and it is thought that they have fallen out.
Were free - "Free," i. e. from any special duties besides those of supervision, which was so arranged among the overseers that someone exercised it during every part of both day and night.
These chief fathers of the Levites were chief throughout their generations; these dwelt at Jerusalem.Chief throughout their generations - The superintendents, that is, were the genealogical head of the different Levitical divisions, and bore special rule, each over those of his own blood and race. The hereditary principle prevailed, not only in the high priesthood, but also in the priestly offices of the second rank.
And in Gibeon dwelt the father of Gibeon, Jehiel, whose wife's name was Maachah:An almost exact repetition of 1 Chronicles 8:29-38; and probably intentionally made by the author. In order to connect the genealogical section of his work with the historical, he re-introduces the genealogy of the person with whose death his historical section opens.
And his firstborn son Abdon, then Zur, and Kish, and Baal, and Ner, and Nadab,
And Gedor, and Ahio, and Zechariah, and Mikloth.
And Mikloth begat Shimeam. And they also dwelt with their brethren at Jerusalem, over against their brethren.
And Ner begat Kish; and Kish begat Saul; and Saul begat Jonathan, and Malchishua, and Abinadab, and Eshbaal.
And the son of Jonathan was Meribbaal: and Meribbaal begat Micah.
And the sons of Micah were, Pithon, and Melech, and Tahrea, and Ahaz.
And Ahaz begat Jarah; and Jarah begat Alemeth, and Azmaveth, and Zimri; and Zimri begat Moza;
And Moza begat Binea; and Rephaiah his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his son.
And Azel had six sons, whose names are these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan: these were the sons of Azel.