2 Chronicles 13:11
And they burn to the LORD every morning and every evening burnt sacrifices and sweet incense: the show bread also set they in order on the pure table; and the candlestick of gold with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening: for we keep the charge of the LORD our God; but you have forsaken him.
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(11) Every morning and every evening.—For the daily sacrifice, see Exodus 29:38-42; for the “sweet incense,” or incense of spices, Exodus 30:7.

The shewbread also . . .—Literally, and a pile of bread on the pure table. The construction is uncertain. The words seem to depend loosely on the verb they offer (“they burn”) at the beginning of the sentence. But perhaps they should be taken thus: and a pile of bread is on the pure table, and the golden lampstand and its lamps they have to light every evening. (See Exodus 25:30; Exodus 25:37; Leviticus 24:5-7.) The Syriac reads, “and the golden lampstands and their lamps; and the lamp-boy lighteth them every evening.” It is noticeable that only one table and one candlestick are mentioned here. (Comp. 2Chronicles 4:7-8; 2Chronicles 4:19.)

The observance of these details of ritual is called “keeping the charge of Jehovah” (see Leviticus 8:35), and neglect of them is “forsaking” Him. (See on 2Chronicles 13:10).

2 Chronicles 13:11. The show-bread upon the pure table — So called, because it was made of pure gold, Exodus 25:23-24. He saith, table and candlestick, though there were ten of each, because ordinarily there was but one of each used at a time. We keep the charge of the Lord our God —

We worship no images, have no priests but those whom he has ordained, no rites of worship but what he has prescribed. Both the temple-service and the temple-furniture are of his appointing: his appointment we abide by, and neither add nor diminish. Perhaps he flattered himself that his keeping up the external worship of God would make satisfaction for the errors of his life. Or he said this, that he might thereby encourage his own soldiers, and convince or terrify his enemies.13:1-22 Abijah overcomes Jeroboam. - Jeroboam and his people, by apostacy and idolatry, merited the severe punishment Abijah was permitted to execute upon them. It appears from the character of Abijah, 1Ki 15:3, that he was not himself truly religious, yet he encouraged himself from the religion of his people. It is common for those that deny the power of godliness, to boast of the form of it. Many that have little religion themselves, value it in others. But it was true that there were numbers of pious worshippers in Judah, and that theirs was the more righteous cause. In their distress, when danger was on every side, which way should they look for deliverance unless upward? It is an unspeakable comfort, that our way thither is always open. They cried unto the Lord. Earnest prayer is crying. To the cry of prayer they added the shout of faith, and became more than conquerors. Jeroboam escaped the sword of Abijah, but God struck him; there is no escaping his sword.Seven rams - "A bullock and two rams" was the offering which God had required at the original consecration of the sons of Aaron Exodus 29:1; Leviticus 8:2. Jeroboam, for reasons of his own, enlarged the sacrifice, and required it at the consecration of every priest. 4-12. Abijah stood up upon Mount Zemaraim—He had entered the enemy's territory and was encamped on an eminence near Beth-el (Jos 18:22). Jeroboam's army lay at the foot of the hill, and as a pitched battle was expected, Abijah, according to the singular usage of ancient times, harangued the enemy. The speakers in such circumstances, while always extolling their own merits, poured out torrents of invective and virulent abuse upon the adversary. So did Abijah. He dwelt on the divine right of the house of David to the throne; and sinking all reference to the heaven-condemned offenses of Solomon and the divine appointment of Jeroboam, as well as the divine sanction of the separation, he upbraided Jeroboam as a usurper, and his subjects as rebels, who took advantage of the youth and inexperience of Rehoboam. Then contrasting the religious state of the two kingdoms, he drew a black picture of the impious innovations and gross idolatry introduced by Jeroboam, with his expulsion and impoverishment (2Ch 11:14) of the Levites. He dwelt with reasonable pride on the pure and regular observance of the ancient institutions of Moses in his own dominion [2Ch 13:11] and concluded with this emphatic appeal: "O children of Israel, fight ye not against Jehovah, the God of your fathers, for ye shall not prosper." The pure table; so called, because it was made of pure gold, Exodus 25:23,24.

The candlestick; he saith table and candlestick, though there were ten of each, 2 Chronicles 4:7,8; either,

1. Because Shishak had carried away all but one. Or,

2. The singular number is put for the plural, as 1 Kings 7:48, and oft elsewhere. Or,

3. Because ordinarily there was but one of each used at a time for those uses.

To burn every evening; and from evening to morning continually, Leviticus 24:2,3; for which end one candlestick was sufficient, and it is very improbable that all the candlesticks were used every night.

We keep the charge of the Lord our God: this he saith, though he was an ungodly king; either because he flattered himself and fancied that his keeping up the external worship of God would make full satisfaction for the errors of his life; or that he might hereby encourage his own soldiers, and convince or terrify his enemies. And they burn unto the Lord, every morning and every evening, burnt sacrifices and sweet incense,.... That is, the priests; the one they did on the altar of burnt offering, and the other on the altar of incense, and both every day, morning and evening:

the shewbread also set they in order upon the pure table; the shewbread table, every sabbath day, when they took the old bread off, which had stood there a week:

and the candlestick of gold, with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening; these were lighted every evening, and dressed every morning; and though there were ten tables and ten candlesticks in Solomon's temple, yet only one of each was used at a time; and therefore from hence it is not to be concluded that all the rest were taken away by Shishak:

for we keep the charge of the Lord our God; observe all the rites and ceremonies, laws, and ordinances enjoined by him; the Targum is,"the charge of the Word of the Lord our God:"

but ye have forsaken him; his fear or worship, as the same paraphrase.

And they burn unto the LORD every {k} morning and every evening burnt sacrifices and sweet incense: the shewbread also set they in order upon the pure table; and the candlestick of gold with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening: for we keep the charge of the LORD our God; but ye have forsaken him.

(k) As it was appointed in the law, Ex 29:39.

11. every morning and every evening] Exodus 29:38-42.

sweet incense] Exodus 30:7.

the shew bread also set they in order] Lit. and an ordering of bread [they set in order]. The Heb. phrase used here for “shewbread” signifies bread arranged as for an offering. Another term is “bread of the presence,” i.e. bread set forth continually before the Lord (Exodus 25:30).

the candlestick] Exodus 25:31 ff; Exodus 40:24-25."Is it not to you to know?" i.e., can it be unknown to you? מלח בּרית, accus. of nearer definition: after the fashion of a covenant of salt, i.e., of an irrevocable covenant; cf. on Leviticus 2:13 and Numbers 18:19. "And Jeroboam, the servant of Solomon the son of David (cf. 1 Kings 11:11), rebelled against his lord," with the help of frivolous, worthless men (רקים as in Judges 9:4; Judges 11:3; בליּעל בּני as in 1 Kings 21:10, 1 Kings 21:13 -not recurring elsewhere in the Chronicle), who gathered around him, and rose against Rehoboam with power. על התאמּץ, to show oneself powerful, to show power against any one. Against this rising Rehoboam showed himself not strong enough, because he was an inexperienced man and soft of heart. נער denotes not "a boy," for Rehoboam was forty-one years old when he entered upon his reign, but "an inexperienced young man," as in 1 Chronicles 29:1. לבב רך, soft of heart, i.e., faint-hearted, inclined to give way, without energy to make a stand against those rising insolently against him. lp' התחזק ולא, and showed himself not strong before them, proved to be too weak in opposition to them. This representation does not conform to the state of the case as narrated in 2 Chronicles 10. Rehoboam did not appear soft-hearted and compliant in the negotiation with the rebellious tribes at Sichem; on the contrary, he was hard and defiant, and showed himself youthfully inconsiderate only in throwing to the winds the wise advice of the older men, and in pursuance of the rash counsel of the young men who had grown up with him, brought about the rupture by his domineering manner. But Abijah wishes to justify his father as much as possible in his speech, and shifts all the guilt of the rebellion of the ten tribes from the house of David on to Jeroboam and his worthless following.
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