1 Kings 7:30
And every base had four brazen wheels, and plates of brass: and the four corners thereof had supports: under the laver were supports molten, at the side of every addition.
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1 Kings 7:30. Every base had four brazen wheels — Whereby the bases and lavers might be removed from place to place, as need required. Undersetters — Hebrew, shoulders; fitly so called, because they supported the lavers, that they should not fall from their bases, when the bases were removed, together with the lavers.7:13-47 The two brazen pillars in the porch of the temple, some think, were to teach those that came to worship, to depend upon God only, for strength and establishment in all their religious exercises. Jachin, God will fix this roving mind. It is good that the heart be established with grace. Boaz, In him is our strength, who works in us both to will and to do. Spiritual strength and stability are found at the door of God's temple, where we must wait for the gifts of grace, in use of the means of grace. Spiritual priests and spiritual sacrifices must be washed in the laver of Christ's blood, and of regeneration. We must wash often, for we daily contract pollution. There are full means provided for our cleansing; so that if we have our lot for ever among the unclean it will be our own fault. Let us bless God for the fountain opened by the sacrifice of Christ for sin and for uncleanness.Plates of brass - Rather, "brazen axletrees."

The "undersetters" (literally, "shoulders") are conjectured to have been four brackets, or bars, proceeding from the four upper corners of the bases, and stretching upward to the outer rim of the laver, which thus rested partly upon them.

At the side of every addition - Rather, "each opposite garlands." The laver was ornamented with a garland at the place where the support reached it.

27-39. he made ten bases of brass—These were trucks or four-wheeled carriages, for the support and conveyance of the lavers. The description of their structure shows that they were elegantly fitted up and skilfully adapted to their purpose. They stood, not on the axles, but on four rests attached to the axles, so that the figured sides were considerably raised above the wheels. They were all exactly alike in form and size. The lavers which were borne upon them were vessels capable each of holding three hundred gallons of water, upwards of a ton weight. The whole, when full of water, would be no less than two tons [Napier]. Four brazen wheels; whereby the bases and lavers might be carried from place to place, as need required.

Undersetters, Heb. shoulders; fitly so called, because they strongly supported the lavers, that they should not fall from their bases when the bases were removed together with the lavers. And every base had four brasen wheels, and plates of brass,.... Flat pieces or planks of brass, on which the wheels stood, and not on the bare floor; so that these wheels seem only to serve as supporters, not to carry the laver from place to place, as is usually said; for they were not like chariot wheels, on two sides of the carriage, but set one at each square; and besides, when the lavers were placed upon them, they were fixed in a certain place, 1 Kings 7:39.

and the four corners thereof had undersetters; or "shoulders (a)", or pillars, which were placed on the plates of brass the wheels were; and served with them to support the lavers when laid upon the bases, and so were of the same use as men's shoulders, to bear burdens on them:

under the layer were undersetters molten; cast as, and when and where, the bases were, and the plates on which they stood; this explains the use they were of, being under the laver; these pillars stood at the four corners of the base:

at the side of every addition; made of thin work, 1 Kings 7:29 they stood by the side of, or within side, the sloping shelves.

(a) "humeri", Pagninus, Montanus, &c.

And every base had four brazen wheels, and plates of brass: and the four corners thereof had undersetters: under the laver were undersetters molten, at the side of every addition.
30. and plates of brass] For ‘plates’ read axles.

and the four corners thereof had undersetters] The last word is that usually rendered ‘shoulders,’ (see R.V. margin), and the word translated ‘corners’ means rather (1) a footstep, (2) a foot. It is used Exodus 25:12 for the corners (R.V. feet) of the ark, into which rings were to be fixed for the staves to pass through when it was carried about. This seems the more suitable rendering here also and it is a different word that is rendered ‘corners’ in 1 Kings 7:34. The sense would then be ‘the four feet thereof had shoulder pieces’ i.e. attached to them. The purpose of these shoulders appears to have been for the axles to pass through on which the wheels were fixed. The next clause would then run ‘underneath the laver were the shoulders molten.’ But because of that expression some have thought that the ‘shoulder pieces’ rose upward from the top of the four feet, and were meant as stays on which the laver should rest.

at the side of every addition] The last word is the same which in the previous verse has been rendered ‘wreaths.’ And here that sense must also be given to it. Literally, ‘at the side of each one (were) wreaths’ or more idiomatically, (as R.V.) with wreaths at the side of each.Verse 30. - And every base had four brazen wheels [As the lavers were used for washing "such things as they offered for burnt offering" (2 Chronicles 4:6), and consequently would require to be continually emptied and refilled, they must of necessity be moveable, so that they could be taken, now to the sea, or other reservoir, now to the altar], and plates [Heb. axles] of brass: and the four corners [Heb. feet; פַּעַם signifies step, thence foot, and is here used of artificial feet. These were, no doubt, at the four corners, and served to raise the stand above the wheels, so that the foliage, etc., was not hidden] thereof had undersetters [Heb. shoulders. "The bearings of the axle" (Gesen.) must be meant. The bases had four feet, which apparently terminated in a sort of socket or fork, into which the axletrees were inserted]: under the laver were under setters [Heb. the shoulders] molten [or cast], at the side of every addition. [Lit., opposite to a man (i.e., each) were wreaths. The explanation of Keil is that "from the feet., there ascended shoulder pieces, which ran along the outside of the chest and reached to the lower part of the basin, which was upon the lid of the chest, and, as shoulders, either supported or helped to support it." He thus understands the "shoulder" to extend from the foot, or axletree, to the bottom of the laver. But it seems quite as likely that these shoulders were within the stand; that they started from its upper corners, i.e., "from under the laver" (as in the Hebrew), passed down along its inner angles, and emerged below - the stand may well have had no bottom - in the shape of feet or forks, which rested on the axletrees, and supported both stand and ]aver. Over against this internal shoulder blade or support was placed externally a wreath. But Bahr despairs of arriving at any just and adequate understanding of this arrangement, and, in the absence of drawings, it is perhaps hopeless that we shall ever interpret the words with certainty.] Any colocynths (gourds) ran round it under its brim, ten to the cubit, surrounding the sea in two rows; the colocynths "cast in its casting," i.e., cast at the same time as the vessel itself. Instead of פּקעים, gourds (see at 1 Kings 6:18), we find בּקרים דּמוּת, figures of oxen, in the corresponding text of the Chronicles, and in the last clause merely הבּקר, an evident error of the pen, בקרים being substituted by mistake for פקעים, and afterwards interpreted בקרים דמות. The assumption by which the early expositors removed the discrepancy, namely, that they were casts of bullocks' heads, is not to be thought of, for the simple reason that בקרים signifies oxen and not the heads of oxen. How far apart the two rows of gourd-like ornaments were, it is impossible to decide. Their size may be estimated, from the fact that there were ten within the space of a cubit, at a little over two inches in diameter.
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