1 Kings 1:10
But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, and the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, he called not.
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1:5-10 Indulgent parents are often chastised with disobedient children, who are anxious to possess their estates. No worldly wisdom, nor experience, nor sacredness of character, can insure the continuance in any former course of those who remain under the power of self-love. But we may well wonder by what arts Joab and Abiathar could be drawn aside.Adonijah's feast was probably of a sacrificial character, and intended to inaugurate him as king. Compare the "sacrifices" of Absalom 2 Samuel 15:12.

Zoheleth - No satisfactory explanation has been given of this name. Large blocks of stone always attract attention in the East, and receive names which are often drawn from some trivial circumstance. Sinai and Palestine are full of such "Hajars," which correspond to the "Ebens" or "stones" of Holy Scripture. (Compare Genesis 28:22; Joshua 4:9; 1 Samuel 6:14.) For En-Rogel, see the margin reference.

9, 10. En-rogel—situated (Jos 15:7-10) east of Jerusalem, in a level place, just below the junction of the valley of Hinnom with that of Jehoshaphat. It is a very deep well, measuring one hundred twenty-five feet in depth; the water is sweet, but not very cold, and it is at times quite full to overflowing. The Orientals are fond of enjoying festive repasts in the open air at places which command the advantage of shade, water, and verdure; and those fetes champetres are not cold collations, but magnificent entertainments, the animals being killed and dressed on the spot. Adonijah's feast at En-rogel was one of this Oriental description, and it was on a large scale (2Sa 3:4, 5; 5:14-16; 1Ch 14:1-7). At the accession of a new king there were sacrifices offered (1Sa 11:15). But on such an occasion it was no less customary to entertain the grandees of the kingdom and even the populace in a public manner (1Ch 12:23-40). There is the strongest probability that Adonijah's feast was purely political, to court popularity and secure a party to support his claim to the crown. Because he knew they favoured Solomon his competitor.

But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, and the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, he called not. Did not invite them to this feast; not Nathan, who he might know had prophesied of Solomon's succession in the throne, and therefore it could not be thought he would be drawn over to him; nor "Benaiah and the mighty men"; David's bodyguards, over whom this officer was; and still less Solomon, his competitor and rival. But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, and {f} the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, he called not.

(f) As the Cherethites and Pelethites.

10. Solomon his brother] Doubtless Adonijah was well acquainted with David’s intention that Solomon should be his successor. But in those early times in most countries but especially in the East the right of hereditary succession was not thought of, the reigning monarch selecting for his successor that member of his family who was most in favour or who seemed most fit to rule. Moreover, in this case, Solomon was not the son of the first wife.

called] i.e. invited to be present at the feast which he was about to make.

Verse 10. - But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, and the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, he called not. [It is clear from this verse that Adonijah perfectly understood that he had in Solomon a rival. The intentions and promises (ver. 13) of his father can hardly have been unknown to him. The name "Jedidiah, too, bestowed upon Solomon by Nathan (2 Samuel 12:25), taken in connexion with the prophecy of Nathan (ibid. 2 Samuel 7:12; cf. 1 Chronicles 22:9, 10), must have proved to him that Solomon was marked out for David's successor. He seems to have been well aware also who were Solomon's supporters. To some of them he may have made indirect overtures. The historian having recorded Adonijah's preparations for a coup d'etat, now relates the manner in which the plot was frustrated. The prophet, who had been the guardian and preceptor of Solomon's youth, and who knew the Divine will respecting the succession (1 Chronicles 22:9, 10), takes prompt and energetic measures to defeat the conspiracy. 1 Kings 1:10Adonijah commenced his usurpation, like Absalom (2 Samuel 15:2), with a solemn sacrificial meal, at which he was proclaimed king, "at the stone of Zocheleth by the side of the fountain of Rogel," i.e., the spy's fountain, or, according to the Chaldee and Syriac, the fuller's fountain, the present fountain of Job or Nehemiah, below the junction of the valley of Hinnom with the valley of Jehoshaphat (see at 2 Samuel 7:17 and Joshua 15:7). E. G. Schultz (Jerusalem, eine Vorlesung, p. 79) supposes the stone or rock of Zocheleth to be "the steep, rocky corner of the southern slope of the valley of Hinnom, which casts so deep a shade." "The neighbourhood (Wady el Rubb) is still a place of recreation for the inhabitants of Jerusalem." To this festal meal Adonijah invited all his brethren except Solomon, and "all the men of Judah, the king's servants," i.e., all the Judaeans who were in the king's service, i.e., were serving at court as being members of his own tribe, with the exception of Nathan the prophet, Benaiah, and the Gibborim. The fact that Solomon and the others mentioned were not included in the invitation, showed very clearly that Adonijah was informed of Solomon's election as successor to the throne, and was also aware of the feelings of Nathan and Benaiah.
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