1 Kings 1:11
Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathsheba the mother of Solomon, saying, Hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith doth reign, and David our lord knoweth it not?
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(11) Wherefore Nathan.—The initiative taken by Nathan is especially natural, since he had been the medium both of the prophecy to David of the son who should build the Lord’s house (2Samuel 7:12-15), and also of the blessing on Solomon, embodied in the name Jedidiah (“beloved of Jehovah,” 2Samuel 12:25). Perhaps for this very reason the conspirators had altogether held aloof from him.

1 Kings 1:11. Nathan spake unto Bath-sheba — Who, being private and retired in her apartment, was ignorant of what was done abroad; and who was likely to be most zealous in the cause, and most prevalent with David. To her Nathan was induced to speak, both by his piety, that he might fulfil the will of God declared to him concerning Solomon’s succession, 2 Samuel 7:13; and by his prudence, knowing that Adonijah hated him for being the principal instrument of Solomon’s advancement. That Adonijah doth reign — It seems they were so bold as to proclaim him king.

1:11-31 Observe Nathan's address to Bathsheba. Let me give thee counsel how to save thy own life, and the life of thy son. Such as this is the counsel Christ's ministers give us in his name, to give all diligence, not only that no man take our crown, Re 3:11, but that we save our lives, even the lives of our souls. David made a solemn declaration of his firm cleaving to his former resolution, that Solomon should be his successor. Even the recollection of the distresses from which the Lord redeemed him, increased his comfort, inspired his hopes, and animated him to his duty, under the decays of nature and the approach of death.The son of Haggith - Compare the margin reference. This expression was well chosen to touch the pride of Bath-sheba. "Adonijah; not thy son, but the son of thy rival, Haggith." 11-27. Nathan spake unto Bath-sheba … let me … give thee counsel, &c.—The revolt was defeated by this prophet, who, knowing the Lord's will (2Sa 7:12; 1Ch 22:9), felt himself bound, in accordance with his character and office, to take the lead in seeing it executed. Hitherto the succession of the Hebrew monarchy had not been settled. The Lord had reserved to Himself the right of nomination (De 17:15), which was acted upon in the appointments both of Saul and David; and in the case of the latter the rule was so far modified that his posterity were guaranteed the perpetual possession of the sovereignty (2Sa 7:12). This divine purpose was known throughout the kingdom; but no intimation had been made as to whether the right of inheritance was to belong to the oldest son. Adonijah, in common with the people generally, expected that this natural arrangement should be followed in the Hebrew kingdom as in all others. Nathan, who was aware of the old king's solemn promise to Solomon, and, moreover, that this promise was sanctioned by the divine will, saw that no time was to be lost. Fearing the effects of too sudden excitement in the king's feeble state, he arranged that Bath-sheba should go first to inform him of what was being transacted without the walls, and that he himself should follow to confirm her statement. The narrative here not only exhibits the vivid picture of a scene within the interior of a palace, but gives the impression that a great deal of Oriental state ceremonial had been established in the Hebrew court. Nathan was prompted to this both by his piety in fulfilling the will of God declared to him, and by him to David, concerning Solomon’s succession, 2 Samuel 7:13 1 Chronicles 22:8,9; and by his prudence, as knowing that Adonijah hated him for being the principal instrument of Solomon’s advancement. Bath-sheba being retired and private in her apartment, was yet ignorant of what was done abroad; and she was likely to be most zealous in the cause, and most prevalent with David.

David our lord knoweth it not; so far is he from consenting to it, as thou mayest fear or others think, that they have not yet acquainted him with it.

Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathsheba the mother of Solomon,.... Who not only had an interest in the king, being his wife, and an easy access to him, but had a special concern in this affair, as it affected her son, to whom the succession of the kingdom was designed and promised:

saying, hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith doth reign? has usurped the throne, and is proclaimed king by a party, who at least have drank his health as such; has taken the title, and is about to exercise the power of a king; this Bathsheba might not have heard of, and which he expresses in this manner to quicken her to make an immediate application to the king:

and David our Lord knoweth it not; being so infirm, and in his bed, and nobody about him to inform him of it; it was done without his knowledge, and far from being with his consent and approbation.

Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathsheba the mother of Solomon, saying, Hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith doth reign, and David our lord knoweth it not?
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
11–14. Nathan’s counsel to Bath-sheba (Not in Chronicles)

11. Bath-sheba] She who had before been the wife of Uriah the Hittite. Nathan’s zeal for Solomon’s cause may be well understood, because it was by his message (2 Samuel 12:25) that Solomon was specially called the ‘beloved of the Lord.’

doth reign] As though the work were already completed and Adonijah already assured of the throne.

Verse 11. - Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathsheba the mother of Solomon [the person after Solomon most directly concerned and also best fitted to approach the king] saying, Hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith [possibly there is a touch of worldly wisdom here, as Rawlinson suggests, "Haggith, thy rival." We may be sure David's harem was not without its fierce jealousies. But (see ver. 5, and 1 Kings 2:13) the patronymic is so common in Hebrews that we cannot safely found an argument upon it. See on chap. 2:5] doth reign [Hebrews did reign. LXX. ἐβασίλευσαεν, aor. = "succeeded." "Schon so gut wie Konig geworden ist." Bahr and Keil] and David our Lord knoweth it not. 1 Kings 1:11Adonijah's attempt was frustrated by the vigilance of the prophet Nathan.

1 Kings 1:11-13

Nathan informed Solomon's mother, Bathsheba (see at 2 Samuel 11:3), that Adonijah was making himself king (מלך כּי, that he had become as good as king: Thenius), and advised her, in order to save her life and that of her son Solomon (וּמלטי, and save equals so that thou mayest save; cf. Ewald, 347, a.), to go to the king and remind him of his promise on oath, that her son Solomon should be king after him, and to inquire why Adonijah had become king. If Adonijah had really got possession of the throne, he would probably have put Solomon and his mother out of the way, according to the barbarous custom of the East, as his political opponents.

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