And their villages were, Etam, and Ain, Rimmon, and Tochen, and Ashan, five cities:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)And their villages.—This belongs to 1Chronicles 4:31. The verb should be cancelled.
Etam, and Ain, Rimmon . . .—Why are these five cities separated from the former thirteen? The old Jewish expositors Rashi and Kimchi assert, that whereas the thirteen were lost to the Simeonites from the time of David, these five remained in their possession. The separation is made in Joshua 19 as well as here. (Many MSS. read “and Rimmon.”)
Five cities.—Joshua 19:7 : “Ain, Rimmon, and Ether, and Ashan; four cities and their villages.” Etam may be a mistake for Ether. But there were two Etams, one in the hills of Judah, south of Bethlehem (see 1Chronicles 4:3, Note; 2Chronicles 11:6), and one in the south of Judah (Judges 15:8)—perhaps the place intended here. Ether occurs in Joshua 15:42 along with Ashan. Both were in the lowlands of Judah. Ain and Rimmon are spoken of as one place (Nehemiah 11:29): they must have been close to each other (comp. Buda-Pesth). Tochen only here.1 Samuel 27:6, were lost to Simeon about David's time. Joshua 19:7 one might be added since, or new built, namely, Tochen; these, according to Kimchi, were all that remained for them to dwell in, in the times of David; and therefore they were obliged to seek out for new settlements for themselves and flocks, as in 1 Chronicles 4:39, &c. And their villages were, Etam, and Ain, Rimmon, and Tochen, and Ashan, five cities:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)32. And their villages were] These villages (ḥǎçêrîm) are called at the end of the verse cities, but sometimes ḥǎçêrîm are described as un-walled (Leviticus 25:31) and sometimes as dependencies of cities (1 Chronicles 4:33 of this ch.). In these two cases ḥǎçêrîm would be distinguished from cities.
Etam] In the parallel passage, Joshua 19:7, Etam is omitted and the villages (“cities”) are reckoned as four not five.1 Chronicles 4:25, 1 Chronicles 4:26, through six generations to one Shimei. But this list is divided into two groups by the words "and the sons of Mishma," inserted at the beginning of 1 Chronicles 4:26, but the reasons for the division are unknown. The plural, sons of Mishma, refers to Hammuel and his descendants Zacchur and Shimei. Perhaps these two together form, with the sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons mentioned in 1 Chronicles 4:25, a single larger family.
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