1 Chronicles 27:31
And over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagerite. All these were the rulers of the substance which was king David's.
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(31) And over the flocks.—Of sheep and goats.

Jaziz the Hagerite.—See 1Chronicles 5:10-19, for the conquest of East Gilead, the home of the Hagrim, or “Hagerites,” by the tribe of Reuben, in the days of Saul. David’s herds of camels and flocks of small cattle may have grazed in the pastures east of the Jordan, under the charge of his Bedawi overseers.

All these were the rulers of the substance which was king David’s.—The word rendered “rulers” is sārîm, “captains” or “princes.” (See 1Chronicles 27:22.) The same term is translated “stewards” in 1Chronicles 28:1.

Substance (rĕkûsh) is an old word, denoting especially the moveable wealth of a nomad chief. (Comp. Genesis 12:5; Genesis 14:21.) The wealth of David consisted partly of flocks and herds, but partly also of the produce of husbandry, and, no doubt, of commerce. (See 1Chronicles 14:1; 1Chronicles 22:4.) The period of the kings saw Israel a settled nation, that had exchanged the purely nomad life for an ordered social existence.

1 Chronicles 27:31. All these were the rulers of the substance which was David’s — It is observable, here are no officers for state, none for sport, no master of the ceremonies, or of the hounds, but all for substance, agreeable to the simplicity and plainness of those times. David was a great soldier, a great scholar, and a great prince; and yet a great husband of his estate. Those magistrates who would have their subjects industrious, must themselves be examples of application to business.27:16-34 The officers of the court, or the rulers of the king's substance, had the oversight and charge of the king's tillage, his vineyards, his herds, his flocks, which formed the wealth of eastern kings. Much of the wisdom of princes is seen in the choice of their ministry, and common persons show it in the choice of their advisers. David, though he had all these about him, preferred the word of God before them all. Thy testimonies are my delight and my counsellors.In the low plains - Rather, "in the Shephelah," the proper name of the low tract between the hill country of Judaea and the Mediterranean. 31. rulers of the substance that was king David's—How and when the king acquired these demesnes and this variety of property—whether it was partly by conquests, or partly by confiscation, or by his own active cultivation of waste lands—is not said. It was probably in all these ways. The management of the king's private possessions was divided into twelve parts, like his public affairs and the revenue derived from all these sources mentioned must have been very large. No text from Poole on this verse. And over the king's treasures was Azmaveth the son of Adiel,.... The historian here proceeds to relate who were employed in the economical and civil affairs of David; and the first mentioned is the lord of his treasury, who had the care of his gold and silver brought into his exchequer, either by a levy on his own people, or by the tribute of others: Jehonathan the son of Uzziah had the care of the storehouses, in which were laid up what the fields, cities, villages, and castles that belonged to the king produced, whether by fruits gathered in, or by rents collected: Ezri the son of Chelub looked after his workmen in the fields, employed in the tillage of the ground: Shimei of Ramath, in the tribe of Benjamin, had the care of the vineyards, to see that they were dressed and pruned, and kept in good order: Zabdi of Shepham, Numbers 34:10 had the charge of the wine squeezed out of the grapes, both in the presses and in the cellars: Baalhanan of Gedor, in the tribe of Judah, Joshua 15:36 was over the olive and sycamore trees, to see that they were well taken care of: and Joash was entrusted with the cellars where the oil was deposited: Shitrai the Sharonite had the herds of cattle fed in Sharon committed to his trust; whether in Sharon beyond Jordan, or that about Lydda and Joppa, near the Mediterranean sea, both affording fruitful pastures for herds; and this man, being of Sharon, was a fit man to be employed in such service: and Shaphat the son of Adlai was over those herds that were in the valleys, where were good pastures for them; such officers Pharaoh king of Egypt had, Genesis 47:6 and as early as the times of Ninus king of Assyria, one named Simma was master of the king's cattle (l), as Faustulus was to Amulius king of the Latines (m); and so Tyrrhus in Virgil (n) had the command of all the king's cattle; and Cicero mentions another in the same office (o): Obil the Ishmaelite (an Arab, as the Targum) had the care of the camels; and a very proper person he was, who must know the nature of them, and how to manage them, Arabia, or the land of the Ishmaelites, abounding with them. This man was so called, either because he was an Ishmaelite by birth, and was proselyted to the Jewish religion; or he was an Israelite that had dwelt some time in the land of Ishmael, and therefore so called. Bochart (p) thinks he had his name of Obil from his office, the word in the Arabic language signifying a keeper of camels. Jehdeiah the Meronothite was over the asses, which were employed in ploughing and carrying burdens; and Jaziz the Hagarite was over the flocks of sheep, the chief shepherd, who had the command of all the under shepherds, and a very proper person, being an Hagarite, or Arab; for such dwelt in tents for the sake of pasturage for their flocks, as Jarchi notes: these were the principal men that had the care of David's personal substance; so, in later times, the Roman Caesars (q) had such sort of servants to take care of their farms, fields, fruit, cattle, &c. the rest that follow were David's courtiers. Jonathan, or to whom David was uncle, the son of Shimea, his brother being a wise and learned man, was his counsellor, see 2 Samuel 21:21 and Jehiel the Hachmonite was preceptor, or tutor to the king's sons, that brought them up, and took care of their education; Ahithophel was his counsellor until the conspiracy and rebellion of Absalom; and Hushai the Archite was his companion, friend, and favourite, with whom he conversed at leisure hours. After the death of Ahithophel, Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar, were his counsellors, and Joab the general of his army.

(l) Diodor. Sicul. l. 2. p. 93. (m) Liv. Hist. Decad. 1. l. 1. p. 5. (n) Aeneid. l. 7. Tyrrhusque pater, &c. ver. 485. (o) Apud Servium, in ib. (p) Hierozoic. par. 1. l. 2. c. Colossians 77. (q) Vid. Pignorium de Servis, p. 548.

And over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagerite. All these were the rulers of the substance which was king David's.
31. Hagerite] R.V. Hagrite; cp. 1 Chronicles 5:10.Verse 31. - For the Hagerite tribe, see 1 Chronicles 5:10, 18-22. For the rulers of the substance, the Hebrew words are שָׂרֵי הָרְכּוּשׁ. The number of them adds up again to twelve; Keil justly supposes that the two named in ver. 25 were those principal officers to whom the other ten delivered the proceeds of their respective charges. The managers of David's possessions and domains. - The property and the income of the king were (1 Chronicles 27:25) divided into treasures of the king, and treasures in the country, in the cities, the villages, and the castles. By the "treasures of the king" we must therefore understand those which were in Jerusalem, i.e., the treasures of the royal palace. These were managed by Azmaveth. The remaining treasures are specified in 1 Chronicles 27:26. They consisted in fields which were cultivated by labourers (1 Chronicles 27:26); in vineyards (1 Chronicles 27:27); plantations of olive trees and sycamores in the Shephelah, the fruitful plain on the Mediterranean Sea (1 Chronicles 27:28); in cattle, which pastured partly in the plain of Sharon between Caesarea Palestina and Joppa, partly in various valleys of the country (1 Chronicles 27:29); and in camels, asses, and sheep (1 Chronicles 27:30.). All these possessions are called רכוּשׁ, and the overseers of them הרכוּשׁ שׂרי. They consisted in the produce of agriculture and cattle-breeding, the two main branches of Israelitish industry.
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