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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary

breaking; bruising small; gold; coloring

Smith's Bible Dictionary

Twice written in the Authorized Version for Chittim. (Genesis 10:4; 1 Chronicles 1:7)

ATS Bible Dictionary

Son of Javan, and grandson of Noah, Genesis 10:4. See CHITTIM.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Genesis 10:4). (see CHITTIM.)
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

kit'-im (kittim, Isaiah 23:12 Jeremiah 2:10; kittiyim, apparently plural of kitti (not found, but compare (4) below); Ketioi, Kitioi, Ketieim, Jeremiah 2:10; Chettieim, Chettein): identified with Sepphoris, which is represented by the modern village of Seffuriyeh.

1. Two Usages of the Name:

In Genesis 10:4 the word is applied to the descendants of Javan, and indicates, therefore, the Greek-Latin races, whose territory extended along the coasts of the Mediterranean, and included its islands. By the side of Kittim are mentioned Elisha, Tarshish, and Dodanim (= Rodanim of 1 Chronicles 1:7), generally explained respectively as Sicily with Southern Italy, Spain and Rhodes. In its narrower sense Kittim appears simply to have stood for the island of Cyprus-it is mentioned between Bashan (= Pal) and the isles of Elisha in Ezekiel 27:6, 7, and with this Isaiah 23:1, 12 agree, Kittim occurring in these passages between Tarshish, Tyre and Sidon.

2. In Its Limited Sense:

The oldest etymology is apparently that of Josephus, who connects Kittim with the well-known old Cypriote city Kition (Citium) (Ant., I, vi, 1), testifying to the settling of the Kittim on the island. This word he further connects with Chethima, from Chethimus, and states that it was on account of Cyprus being the home of those people that all islands were called Chethim by the Hebrews. The derivation of an ancient Chethim from Chethimus, however, would make the m to be a radical, and this, with the substitution of Ch (= Kh) for Kittim, renders his proposed etymology somewhat doubtful.

3. In Its Extended Sense:

The statement of Josephus, that "all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coast, are called Chethim (= Kittim) by the Hebrews," on the other hand, must be taken as the testimony of one well acquainted with the opinions of the learned world in his time. In Jeremiah 2:10 and Ezekiel 27:6 the isles of Kittim are expressly spoken of, and this confirms the statement of Josephus concerning the extended meaning of the name. This would explain its application to the Roman fleet in Daniel 11:30 (so the Vulgate), and the Macedonians in 1 Maccabees 1:1 (Chettieim) and 8:5 (Kitians). In the latter passage the Greek writer seems to have been thinking more of the Cyprian Kition than of the Hebrew Kittim.

4. Colonization of Cyprus:

According to Herodotus (vii.90), Cyprus was colonized from Greece, Phoenicia, and Ethiopia. Referring to the plundering of the temple of Aphrodite at Askalon by the Scythians (i.105), he states that her temple in Cyprus was an offshoot from that ancient foundation, as reported by the Cyprians themselves, Phoenicians having founded it at Cythera, on arriving from Syria. The date of the earliest Phoenician settlements in Cyprus is unknown, but it has been suggested that they were anterior to the time of Moses. Naturally they brought with them their religion, the worship of the moon-goddess Atargatis (Derceto) being introduced at Paphos, and the Phoenician Baal at Kition. If Kition be, then, a Semitic word (from the same root as the Hebrew Kittim), it has been transferred from the small band of Phoenician settlers which it at first designated, to the non-Sem Japhethites of the West. Kition occurs in the Phoenician inscriptions of Cyprus under the forms K(i)t(t) and K(i)t(t)i, the latter being by far the more common (CIS, I, i, 10, 11, 14, 19, etc.).

5. Its Successive Masters:

The early history of Cyprus is uncertain. According to the Assyrian copy of Sargon of Agade's omens, that king (about 3800 B.C. in the opinion of Nabonidus; 2800 B.C. in the opinion of many Assyriologists) is said to have crossed "the sea of the setting sun" (the Mediterranean), though the Babylonian copy makes it that of "the rising sun"-i.e. the Persian Gulf. Be this as it may, General Cesnola discovered at Curium, in Cyprus, a seal-cylinder apparently inscribed "Mar-Istar, son of Ilu-bani, servant (worshipper) of Naram-Sin," the last named being the deified son of Sargon. In the 16th century B.C., Cyprus was tributary to Thothmes III. About the year 708 B.C., Sargon of Assyria received the submission of the kings of the district of Ya', in Cyprus, and set up at Citium the stele bearing his name, which is now in the Royal Museum at Berlin. Esarhaddon and his son Assur-bani-apli each received tribute from the 10 Cyprian princes who acknowledged Assyrian supremacy. The island was conquered by the Egyptian king Amasis, and later formed part of the Persian empire, until the revolt of Evagoras in 410 B.C. The Assyrians knew the island under the name of Yad(a)nanu, the "Wedan" (Vedan) of Ezekiel 27:19 Revised Version (British and American) (Sayce, PSBA, 1912, 26).

6. The Races Therein and Their Languages:

If the orthodox date for the composition of Genesis be accepted, not only the Phoenicians, but also the Greeks, or a people of Greek-Latin stock, must have been present in Cyprus, before the time of Moses, in sufficient number to make them the predominant portion of the population. As far as can be judged, the Phoenicians occupied only the eastern and southern portion of the island. Paphos, where they had built a temple to Ashtoreth and set up an 'asherah (a pillar symbolizing the goddess), was one of their principal settlements. The rest of the island was apparently occupied by the Aryans, whose presence there caused the name of Kittim to be applied to all the Greek-Latin countries of the Mediterranean. Greek and Phoenician were the languages spoken on the island, as was proved by George Smith's demonstration of the nature of the non-Phoenician text of the inscription of King Melek-yathon of Citium (370 B.C.). The signs used in the Greek-Cyprian inscriptions are practically all syllabic.

7. The Testimony of Cyprian Art:

The many influences which have modified the Cyprian race are reflected in the ancient art, which shows the effect of Babylonian, Egyptian Phoenician and Greek contacts. Specimens are to be found in many museums, but the finest collection of examples of Cyprian art is undoubtedly that of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Some of the full-length figures are life-size, and the better class of work is exceedingly noteworthy.


T. G. Pinches

Strong's Hebrew
3794. Kitti -- a son of Javan, also his desc. and their land
... and their land. Transliteration: Kitti or Kittiyyi Phonetic Spelling: (kit-tee')
Short Definition: Kittim. ... and their land NASB Word Usage Cyprus (3), Kittim (5). ...
/hebrew/3794.htm - 6k

Chapter x
... 4. And the sons of Javan: Ellshah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim. ... "Kittim" is a
plural noun referring to those who dwelt on the east coast of Cyprus. ...
// of genesis volume 1/chapter x.htm

His Earliest Oracles. (ii. 2-iv. 4. )
... So still with you must I(strive,(145) 9 And strive with your sons.(146) For cross
to the isles of Kittim and look 10 Send to Kedar, and think for yourselves ...
// his earliest oracles ii.htm

Ezekiel's Discourse
... Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; they have made thy benches
of ivory inlaid in boxwood, from the isles of Kittim. ...
/.../various/select masterpieces of biblical literature/vii ezekiels discourse.htm

The Witness of Balaam to Israel
... But ships shall come from the coast of Kittim, And they shall afflict Asshur,
and shall afflict Eber, And he also shall come to destruction. ...
/.../various/select masterpieces of biblical literature/ii the witness of balaam.htm

... Ashkenaz, Elishah, Riphath, Tarshish, Togarmah. Kittim, Dodanim. It often happens
that one branch of a family is exceedingly prolific whilst another is barren. ...
// ancient church/endnotes.htm

... 146 Some Hebrew MSS. and Vulgate. 147 Cyprus = Kittim and Kedar, an Arab tribe,
are the extremes of the world then known to the Jews. 148 So Greek. ...

An Exposition on the First Ten Chapters of Genesis, and Part of ...
The Works of John Bunyan Volumes 1-3. <. ...
/.../bunyan/the works of john bunyan volumes 1-3/an exposition on the first.htm

Kittim (8 Occurrences)
... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. KITTIM. kit'-im (kittim, Isaiah 23:12 Jeremiah
2:10; kittiyim, apparently plural of kitti (not found ...
/k/kittim.htm - 15k

Boats (11 Occurrences)
... (2) tsi (Numbers 24:24 Ezekiel 30:9 Isaiah 33:21), tsi 'addir, "gallant ship"; Daniel
11:30, tsiyim Kittim, "ships of Kittim.' (3) cephinah, "innermost parts ...
/b/boats.htm - 40k

Kittites (2 Occurrences)
... Jeremiah 2:10 For pass over to the isles of Kittim, and see; and send unto Kedar,
and consider diligently; and see if there hath been such a thing. (See JPS). ...
/k/kittites.htm - 6k

Javan (12 Occurrences)
... m; 10:20; 11:02; Zechariah 9:13 Joel 3:6 (Hebrew 4:6) Septuagint hoi Hellenes, ie
"Greeks"), "son" of Japheth, and "father" of Elisha, Tars, Kittim, and Rodarim ...
/j/javan.htm - 12k

Tarshish (24 Occurrences)
... Genesis 10:4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. ... 1 Chronicles
1:7 The sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim. ...
/t/tarshish.htm - 17k

Coastlands (29 Occurrences)
... Jeremiah 2:10 For go over to the sea-lands of Kittim and see; send to Kedar and
give deep thought to it; and see if there has ever been such a thing. (See NAS). ...
/c/coastlands.htm - 14k

Rodanim (2 Occurrences)
... Genesis 10:4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. ... 1 Chronicles
1:7 The sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim. ...
/r/rodanim.htm - 8k

Eli'shah (3 Occurrences)
... Multi-Version Concordance Eli'shah (3 Occurrences). Genesis 10:4 And the sons
of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. (See RSV). ...
/e/eli'shah.htm - 7k

Elishah (3 Occurrences)
... Genesis 10:4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. ... 1 Chronicles
1:7 The sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim. ...
/e/elishah.htm - 8k

Dodanim (2 Occurrences)
... Genesis 10:4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. ... 1 Chronicles
1:7 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. ...
/d/dodanim.htm - 8k

Bible Concordance
Kittim (8 Occurrences)

Genesis 10:4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

Numbers 24:24 But ships shall come from the coast of Kittim. They shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber. He also shall come to destruction."

1 Chronicles 1:7 The sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim.

Isaiah 23:1 The burden of Tyre. Howl, you ships of Tarshish! For it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in. From the land of Kittim it is revealed to them.

Isaiah 23:12 He said, "You shall rejoice no more, you oppressed virgin daughter of Sidon. Arise, pass over to Kittim. Even there you will have no rest."

Jeremiah 2:10 For pass over to the islands of Kittim, and see; and send to Kedar, and consider diligently; and see if there has been such a thing.

Ezekiel 27:6 Of the oaks of Bashan have they made your oars; they have made your benches of ivory inlaid in boxwood, from the islands of Kittim.

Daniel 11:30 For ships of Kittim shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved, and shall return, and have indignation against the holy covenant, and shall do his pleasure : he shall even return, and have regard to those who forsake the holy covenant.



Kittim Chittim

Related Terms

Boats (11 Occurrences)

Kittites (2 Occurrences)

Javan (12 Occurrences)

Tarshish (24 Occurrences)

Coastlands (29 Occurrences)

Rodanim (2 Occurrences)

Eli'shah (3 Occurrences)

Elishah (3 Occurrences)

Dodanim (2 Occurrences)

Bench (1 Occurrence)

Sea-lands (24 Occurrences)

Cyprus (12 Occurrences)

Islands (32 Occurrences)

Chittim (5 Occurrences)


Ships (46 Occurrences)

Coasts (58 Occurrences)

Kitron (1 Occurrence)

Oak-trees (1 Occurrence)

Oaks (14 Occurrences)

Oars (4 Occurrences)

Japheth (12 Occurrences)

Larch (3 Occurrences)

Wail (50 Occurrences)

Inlaid (8 Occurrences)

Isle (15 Occurrences)

Island (16 Occurrences)

Floors (12 Occurrences)

Tarshishah (1 Occurrence)

Troubling (51 Occurrences)

Ro'danim (1 Occurrence)

Eber (16 Occurrences)

Deck (8 Occurrences)

Do'danim (1 Occurrence)

Pines (7 Occurrences)


Boxwood (1 Occurrence)

Benches (3 Occurrences)

Blades (5 Occurrences)

Cypress (17 Occurrences)

Shores (5 Occurrences)

Subdue (26 Occurrences)

Fate (138 Occurrences)

Afflict (55 Occurrences)

Haven (8 Occurrences)

Kedar (11 Occurrences)

Coast (70 Occurrences)

Oppose (29 Occurrences)

Ruin (135 Occurrences)

Closely (38 Occurrences)

Ivory (13 Occurrences)

Direction (128 Occurrences)

Asshur (133 Occurrences)

Indignation (56 Occurrences)

Examine (48 Occurrences)

Nations (683 Occurrences)

Oppressed (81 Occurrences)

Oracle (57 Occurrences)

Lose (59 Occurrences)

Table (125 Occurrences)

Sidon (35 Occurrences)

Diligently (85 Occurrences)

Grieved (87 Occurrences)

Harbor (9 Occurrences)

Howl (29 Occurrences)

Bashan (54 Occurrences)

Reported (104 Occurrences)

Forsake (88 Occurrences)

Genealogy (29 Occurrences)

Patriarchs (6 Occurrences)


Burden (111 Occurrences)

Tyre (59 Occurrences)

Virgin (62 Occurrences)

Elisha (70 Occurrences)

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