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International Standard Bible EncyclopediaVINEGAR
vin'-e-ger (chomets; oxos): Vinegar, whose use as a condiment (Ruth 2:14) needs no comment, is formed when a saccharine fluid passes through a fermentation that produces acetic acid. In the ancient world vinegar was usually made of wine, although any fruit juice can be utilized in its manufacture, and "vinegar of strong drink" (palm juice?) is mentioned in Numbers 6:3. Undiluted vinegar is of course undrinkable, and to offer it to a thirsty man is mockery (Psalm 69:21), but a mixture of water and vinegar makes a beverage that was very popular among the poor (Greek oxos, oxukraton, Latin posca-names applied also to diluted sour wine). It is mentioned in Numbers 6:3 (forbidden to the Nazirite) and again in the Gospels in the account of the Crucifixion. The executioners had brought it in a vessel (John 19:29) for their own use and at first "offered" it to Christ, while keeping it out of reach (Luke 23:36). But at the end the drink was given Him on a sponge (Mark 15:36 Matthew 27:48 John 19:29, 30). In addition, the King James Version, following Textus Receptus of the New Testament, has "vinegar.... mingled with gall" in Matthew 27:34, but this rests on a false reading, probably due to Psalm 69:21, and the Revised Version (British and American) rightly has "wine." Vinegar, like all acids, is injurious to the teeth (Proverbs 10:26); and when it is combined with niter an effervescence is produced (Proverbs 25:20). The appropriateness of the last figure, however, is obscure, and Septuagint reads "as vinegar on a wound," causing pain.
Greek3690. oxos -- sour wine
... sour wine. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: oxos Phonetic Spelling:
(oz-os) Short Definition: vinegar, sour wine Definition: vinegar, sour wine ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3690.htm - 7k
Strong's Hebrew2558. chomets -- vinegar
... 2557, 2558. chomets. 2559 . vinegar. Transliteration: chomets Phonetic
Spelling: (kho'-mets) Short Definition: vinegar. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/2558.htm - 6k
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John Chapter xix. 24-30.
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Smith's Bible DictionaryVinegar
The Hebrew word translated "vinegar" was applied to a beverage consisting generally of wine or strong drink turned sour, but sometimes artificially made by an admixture of barley and wine, and thus liable to fermentation. It was acid even to a proverb, (Proverbs 10:26) and by itself formed an unpleasant draught, (Psalms 49:21) but was used by laborers. (Ruth 2:14) Similar was the acetum of the Romans --a thin, sour wine, consumed by soldiers. This was the beverage of which the Saviour partook in his dying moments. (Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29,30)
ATS Bible DictionaryVinegar
Poor or sour wine, the produce of the second or acetous fermentation of vinous liquors. The term sometimes designates a thin, sour wine, much used by laborers and by the Roman soldiers, Numbers 6:3 Ruth 2:14 2 Chronicles 2:10 John 19:29. See GALL. In other places it denotes the common sharp vinegar, which furnished the wise man with two significant illustrations, Proverbs 10:26 25:20.
Easton's Bible DictionaryHebrews hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Psalm 69:21, a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matthew 27:34). This was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from compassion, to assuage his thirst. Proverbs 10:26 shows that there was also a stronger vinegar, which was not fit for drinking. The comparison, "vinegar upon nitre," probably means "vinegar upon soda" (as in the marg. of the R.V.), which then effervesces.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary1. (n.) A sour liquid used as a condiment, or as a preservative, and obtained by the spontaneous (acetous) fermentation, or by the artificial oxidation, of wine, cider, beer, or the like.
2. (a.) Hence, anything sour; -- used also metaphorically.
ThesaurusVinegar (11 Occurrences)
... vin aigre; ie, "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Psalm 69:21,
a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matthew 27:34). ...
/v/vinegar.htm - 13k
Hyssop (12 Occurrences)
Nitre (2 Occurrences)
Sour (15 Occurrences)
Spunge (3 Occurrences)
Sponge (3 Occurrences)
Gall (17 Occurrences)
Filled (336 Occurrences)
Reed (41 Occurrences)
Offered (320 Occurrences)
Bible ConcordanceVinegar (11 Occurrences)
Matthew 27:34 They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink.
Matthew 27:48 Immediately one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him a drink.
Mark 15:36 One ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying, "Let him be. Let's see whether Elijah comes to take him down."
Luke 23:36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar,
John 19:29 Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there; so they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop, and held it at his mouth.
John 19:30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, "It is finished." He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.
Numbers 6:3 he shall separate himself from wine and strong drink. He shall drink no vinegar of wine, or vinegar of fermented drink, neither shall he drink any juice of grapes, nor eat fresh grapes or dried.
Ruth 2:14 At meal time Boaz said to her, "Come here, and eat of the bread, and dip your morsel in the vinegar." She sat beside the reapers, and they reached her parched grain, and she ate, and was satisfied, and left some of it.
Psalms 69:21 They also gave me gall for my food. In my thirst, they gave me vinegar to drink.
Proverbs 10:26 As vinegar to the teeth, and as smoke to the eyes, so is the sluggard to those who send him.
Proverbs 25:20 As one who takes away a garment in cold weather, or vinegar on soda, so is one who sings songs to a heavy heart.
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