Esther 8:9
Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded to the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India to Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, to every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(9) The month Sivan.—This name also occurs in Baruch 1:8. Sivan began with the new moon in May. Rather more than two months had thus passed since the first edict had been sent out.

Lieutenants.—Satraps. (See Note on Esther 3:12.)

Esther 8:9. On the three and twentieth day thereof — Which was above two months after the former decree. All which time God suffered the Jews to lie under the terror of this dreadful day, that they might be more thoroughly humbled for, and purged from, those many and great sins under which they lay, that they might be convinced of their great sin and folly, in neglecting the many offers and opportunities they had had of returning to their native country, and to the free and public exercise of the true religion, which could be had nowhere but in Jerusalem, by which means they, being now dispersed in the several parts of this vast dominion, must be a very easy prey to their enemies, whereas their brethren in Judea were in a better capacity to preserve themselves; that their most malicious and inveterate enemies might have an opportunity of discovering themselves to their ruin, as the event showed; and for the greater illustration of God’s glorious power, and wisdom, and goodness, in giving his people such an admirable and unexpected deliverance. And God so ordered things, that this letter should be sent in due time, before it was too late; for there were yet near nine months to come before that appointed day. And it was written unto the Jews — That they might understand their liberty, and be encouraged to use it for their own defence. And to the rulers of the provinces — That they should publish and disperse it into all parts, that both themselves and others might take notice of the king’s pleasure, and kindness to the Jews.8:3-14 It was time to be earnest, when the church of God was at stake. Esther, though safe herself, fell down and begged for the deliverance of her people. We read of no tears when she begged for her own life, but although she was sure of that, she wept for her people. Tears of pity and tenderness are the most Christ-like. According to the constitution of the Persian government, no law or decree could be repealed or recalled. This is so far from speaking to the wisdom and honour of the Medes and Persians, that it clearly shows their pride and folly. This savours of that old presumption which ruined all, We will be as gods! It is God's prerogative not to repent, or to say what can never be altered or unsaid. Yet a way was found, by another decree, to authorize the Jews to stand upon their defence. The decree was published in the languages of all the provinces. Shall all the subjects of an earthly prince have his decrees in languages they understand, and shall God's oracles and laws be locked up from any of his servants in an unknown tongue?Sivan corresponds nearly to our June; it was the second month from the issue of the first edict Esther 3:12. 8. Write … in the king's name, and seal it with the king's ring—Hence it is evident that the royal ring had a seal in it, which, being affixed to any document, authenticated it with the stamp of royal authority.

which … may no man reverse—This is added as the reason why he could not comply with the queen's request for a direct reversal or recall of Haman's letters; namely, that the laws of the Medes and Persians, once passed, were irrevocable.

In the third month, on the three and twentieth day thereof; which was above two months after the former decree; all which time God suffered the Jews to lie under the terror of this dreadful day partly, that they might be more thoroughly humbled for and purged from those many and great sins under which they lay; partly, and particularly, that they might be convinced of their great sin and folly in neglecting the many offers and opportunities they had of returning to their native country, and to the free and full exercise of the true religion, which could be had no where but in Jerusalem; by which means they being now dispersed in the several parts of this vast dominion, were like to be a very easy prey to their enemies, whereas their brethren in Judea were in a better capacity to preserve themselves; partly, that their most malicious and inveterate enemies might have an opportunity of discovering themselves to their ruin, as the event showed; and partly, for the greater illustration of God’s glorious power, and wisdom, and goodness, in giving his people such an admirable and unexpected deliverance. Yet God so ordered things, that this letter should be sent in due time before it was too late; for there were yet near nine months to come before that appointed day.

It was written unto the Jews; that they might understand their liberty, and be encouraged to use it for their own defence.

And to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces; that they should publish and disperse them into all parts, that both themselves and others might take notice of the king’s pleasure and kindness to the Jews. Then were the king's scribes called at that time,.... As they were to write the former letter, Esther 3:12,

in the third month, that is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; which answers to part of May, and part of June. This was two months and ten days after the writing of the former letters; so long the Jews had been in distress by reason of them, and was a just rebuke upon them for not returning to their own land when they might, as well as for other sins:

and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded to the Jews. Mordecai dictated to the scribes, and ordered what they should write; and which were sent to the Jews in the first place, partly to ease them of their present distress, and partly that they might prepare against that time for their defence, for which they had sufficient time, it being now more than nine months to it:

and to the lieutenants, and the deputies, and the rulers of the provinces, which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces. The letters were directed to the same magistrates in the several provinces as the former, giving orders to them, that, notwithstanding them, they were to suffer the Jews to defend themselves, and not punish them for what should be done by them in self-defence; see Esther 1:1,

unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language; some provinces spoke the Persian language, and used the character of it, others Chaldee, others Syriac, &c. and wrote in the usual characters, as the Jews did in Hebrew, and in the characters of that language; and now these letters were written in the language and character of the people of the several provinces they were sent to, that they might be easily read and understood.

Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month {f} Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the {g} writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

(f) Which contains part of May and part of June.

(g) That is, in such letters and languages as was usual in every province.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
9. In the Hebrew this is the longest verse in the Hagiographa, consisting of 43 words and 192 letters. It may be added that the longest in the Prophets is Jeremiah 21:7, consisting of 42 words and 160 letters. (See the critical notes on these passages in Baer’s Massoretic Text of the O.T.)

in the third month, which is the month Sivan] the Babylonian siman(n)u. The derivation is uncertain. It corresponded to the last half of May and the first half of June.

on the three and twentieth day thereof] Haman’s letters had been sent out on the thirteenth day of the first month (Esther 3:12 f.), and thus had had two months and ten days start.

the satraps, and the governors and princes] See on Esther 3:12.

an hundred twenty and seven provinces etc.] See on Esther 1:1.Verse 9. - Then were the king's scribes called. The king had said enough. Mordecai saw a means of reconciling the king's scruple with the safety - or if not with the absolute safety, yet with the escape and triumph - of his people. The Jews should be allowed to stand on their defence, should be encouraged to do so, when the time came should be supported in their resistance by the whole power of the government (Esther 9:3). A new decree must issue at once giving the requisite permission, and copies must be at once distributed, that there might be no mistake or misunderstanding. So the "king's scribes" were summoned and set to work. In the third month, the month Sivan. This is another Babylonian name. The month was sacred to the moon-god, Sin, and its name may be connected with his. It corresponded with the latter part of our May and the early part of June. To the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers. Compare Esther 3:12, where the same three classes of rulers are mentioned. An hundred twenty and seven. See the comment on Esther 1:1. And to the Jews. Copies of the former edict had not been sent especially to the Jews. They had been left to learn their danger indirectly from the people among whom they dwelt; but Mordecai took care that they should be informed directly of their right of defence. The chief enemy of the Jews was now destroyed; but the edict, written in the king's name, sealed with the royal seal, and published in all the provinces of the kingdom, for the destruction of all the Jews on the 13th day of the twelfth month, was still in force, and having been issued in due legal form, could not, according to the laws of the Persians and Medes, be revoked. Queen Esther therefore entreated the king to annul the designs of Haman against the Jews. Esther 8:3 and Esther 8:4. "Esther spake again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and wept, and besought him to do away with (העביר, to cause to depart) the mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he devised against the Jews. And the king held out his golden sceptre towards Esther, and Esther arose and stood before the king." This verse gives a summary of the contents of Esther's speech, which is reported verbally in Esther 8:5 and Esther 8:6, so that we must translate the imperfects ותּתחנּן ותּבך - ותּפּל: She spoke before the king, falling at his feet and beseeching him with weeping, that he would do away with המן רעת, the evil that Haman had done, and his device against the Jews. The king stretched out his sceptre (comp. Esther 4:11) as a sign that he would graciously grant her petition; whereupon she arose, stood before the king, and made known her request.
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