Bittern
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Bittern

The word occurs in (Isaiah 14:23; 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14) and we are inclined to believe that the Authorized Version is correct. The bittern (Botaurus stellaris) belongs to the Ardeidae , the heron family of birds, and is famous for the peculiar nocturnal booming sound which it emits.

ATS Bible Dictionary
Bittern

A fowl about the size of a heron, and of the same genus. Nineveh and Babylon became a possession for "the bittern" and other wild birds, Isaiah 14:23 34:11 Zephaniah 2:14. According to some critics, the more probable meaning of the Hebrew word is hedge-hog, or porcupine; and Mr. Rich says he found "great quantities" of porcupine quills among the ruins of Babylon; but others think this inconsistent with Zephaniah 2:14, and understand the word is referring to the common night-heron, a bird like the bittern found among the marshes of Western Asia, resorting to ruined buildings, and uttering a peculiar harsh cry before and after its evening flight.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isaiah 14:23; 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14). This bird belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific name is Botaurus stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting marshy ground. The Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the Authorized Version is rendered "porcupine" in the Revised Version. But in the passages noted the kippod is associated with birds, with pools of water, and with solitude and desolation. This favours the idea that not the "porcupine" but the "bittern" is really intended by the word.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) A wading bird of the genus Botaurus, allied to the herons, of various species.

2. (n.) The brine which remains in salt works after the salt is concreted, having a bitter taste from the chloride of magnesium which it contains.

3. (n.) A very bitter compound of quassia, cocculus Indicus, etc., used by fraudulent brewers in adulterating beer.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
BITTERN

bit'-ern (qippodh; Latin Botaurus stellaris; Greek echinos): A nocturnal member of the heron family, frequenting swamps and marshy places. Its Hebrew name means a creature of waste and desert places. The bittern is the most individual branch of the heron (ardeidae) family on account of being partially a bird of night. There are observable differences from the heron in proportion, and it differs widely in coloration. It is one of the birds of most ancient history, and as far back as records extend is known to have inhabited Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and America. The African bird that Bible historians were familiar with was 2 1/2 ft. in length. It had a 4-inch bill, bright eyes and plumage of buff and chestnut, mottled with black. It lived around swamps and marshes, hunting mostly at night, and its food was much the same as that of all members of the heron family, frogs being its staple article of diet. Its meat has not the fishy taste of most members of the heron family, and in former times was considered a great delicacy of food. In the days of falconry it was protected in England because of the sport afforded in hunting it. Aristotle mentions that previous to his time the bittern was called oknos, which name indicates "an idle disposition." It was probably bestowed by people who found the bird hiding in swamps during the daytime, and saw that it would almost allow itself to be stepped upon before it would fly. They did not understand that it fed and mated at night. Pliny wrote of it as a bird that "bellowed like oxen," for which reason it was called Taurus. Other medieval writers called it botaurus, from which our term "bittern" is derived. There seems to be much confusion as to the early form of the name; but all authorities agree that it was bestowed on the bird on account of its voice. Turner states that in 1544 the British called it "miredromble," and "botley bump," from its voice. Rolland says the French called it, Boeuf d'eau. In later days "bog-bull," "stake-driver" and "thunder-pumper" have attached themselves to it as terms fitly descriptive of its voice. Nuttall says its cry is "like the interrupted bellowing of a bull, but hollower and louder, and is heard at a mile's distance, as if issuing from some formidable being that resided at the bottom of the waters." Tristram says, "Its strange booming note, disturbing the stillness of night, gives an idea of desolation which nothing but the wail of a hyena can equal." Thoreau thought its voice like the stroke of an ax on the head of a deeply driven stake. In ancient times it was believed the bird thrust its sharp beak into a reed to produce this sound. Later it was supposed to be made by pushing the bill into muck and water while it cried. Now the membrane by which the sound is produced has been located in the lungs of the bird. In all time it has been the voice that attracted attention to the bittern, and it was solely upon the ground of its vocal attainments that it entered the Bible. There are three references, all of which originated in its cry. Isaiah in prophesying the destruction of Babylon (Isaiah 14:23 in the King James Version) wrote: "I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water"; in other words he would make of it a desolate and lonely swamp. Again in Isaiah 34:11 in the King James Version, in pronouncing judgment against Idumaea, he wrote, "But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it." In the Revised Version (British and American), "cormorant" and "bittern" are changed to "pelican" and "porcupine." The change from the cormorant to pelican makes less difference, as both are water birds, and the Hebrew shalakh, which means "a plunging bird," would apply equally to either of them. If they were used to bear out the idea that they would fill the ruins with terrifying sound, then it is well to remember that the cormorant had something of a voice, while the pelican is notoriously the most silent of birds. The change from bittern to porcupine is one with which no ornithologist would agree. About 620 B.C., the prophet Zephaniah (Zep 2:14) clearly indicates this bird: "And herds shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations: both the pelican and the porcupine shall lodge in the capitals thereof; their voice shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be in the thresholds: for he hath laid bare the cedar work." This should forever settle the question raised by some modern commentators as to whether a bird or beast is intended by the word qippodh. In some instances it seems to have been confounded with qunfudh, the hedgehog or porcupine. No natural historian ever would agree to this, because these animals are not at home in the conditions that were known to exist here. Even granting that Nineveh was to be made dry, it must be remembered that the marshes of the Tigris lay very close, and the bird is of night, with a voice easily carrying over a mile. Also it was to "sing" and to "lodge" on the "upper lintels" which were the top timbers of the doors and windows. These formed just the location a bittern would probably perch upon when it left its marshy home and went booming through the night in search of a mate. It was without doubt the love song of the bittern that Isaiah and Zephaniah used in completing prophecies of desolation and horror, because with the exception of mating time it is a very quiet bird. For these reasons the change from bittern to porcupine in the Revised Version (British and American), of the paragraph quoted, is a great mistake, as is also that of cormorant to pelican.

Gene Stratton-Porter

Strong's Hebrew
7090. qippod -- porcupine
... bittern. Or qippod {kip-pode'}; from qaphad; a species of bird, perhaps the bittern
(from its contracted form) -- bittern. see HEBREW qaphad. 7089, 7090. ...
/hebrew/7090.htm - 6k
Library

Oh, How He Loves!
... foresight, he looked upon human nature as a palace that had been plundered, and
broken down, and in its ruins he perceived the owl, the bittern, the dragon ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 56 1910/oh how he loves.htm

Hearken and Look; Or, Encouragement for Believers
... Remember, ye that are cast down, that there are other voices besides those of the
bittern and owl from the "waste places." My text has near to it twice, nay ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 27 1881/hearken and look or encouragement.htm

Mitten Wir Im Leben Sind. Though in Midst of Life we Be.
... Heiliger Herre Gott, Heilger, starker Gott, Heiliger, barmherziger Heiland, Du ewiger
Gott! Lass uns nicht versinken In der bittern Todesnoth. Kyrieleison! ...
/.../bacon/the hymns of martin luther/xviii mitten wir im leben.htm

Christ, Unser Herr, Zum Jordan Kam. To Jordan came Our Lord the ...
... Da wollt' er stiften uns ein Bad, Zu waschen uns von Suenden, Ersaeufen auch den
bittern Tod Durch sein selbst Blut und Wunden, Es galt ein neues Leben. ...
/.../bacon/the hymns of martin luther/xxxiv christ unser herr zum.htm

All Fulness in Christ
... In these respects human nature is a desert, empty, and void, and waste, inhabited
only by the dragon of sin, and the bittern of sorrow. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 17 1871/all fulness in christ.htm

Number one Thousand; Or, "Bread Enough and to Spare"
... All that is worth having in his existence will be utterly destroyed, and he himself
shall only remain as a desolation; the owl and the bittern of misery and ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 17 1871/number one thousand or bread.htm

Nun Freut Euch, Lieben Christen G'Mein. Dear Christians, one and ...
... hier zu 'rbarmen, Fahr' hin mein's Herzens werthe Kron' Und sei das Heil dem Armen,
Und hilf ihm aus der Suenden Noth, Erwuerg' fuer ihn den bittern Tod Und ...
/.../bacon/the hymns of martin luther/i nun freut euch lieben.htm

Remaining Books of the Old Testament.
... It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to
generation." "I will also make it a possession for the bittern and pools of water ...
/.../barrows/companion to the bible/chapter xi remaining books of.htm

Healing for the Wounded
... The owl and bittern seem alone to sympathize with them, an aught of joy in the wide
world appears to be but intended as a mockery to their misery. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 1 1855/healing for the wounded.htm

Whether There was any Reasonable Cause for the Ceremonial ...
... The bittern is a bird of the East: it has a long beak, and its jaws are furnished
with follicules, wherein it stores its food at first, after a time proceeding ...
/.../aquinas/summa theologica/whether there was any reasonable.htm

Thesaurus
Bittern (4 Occurrences)
... This favours the idea that not the "porcupine" but the "bittern" is really intended
by the word. Noah Webster's Dictionary. ... Standard Bible Encyclopedia. BITTERN. ...
/b/bittern.htm - 14k

Porcupine (3 Occurrences)
... por'-ku-pin (qippodh (Isaiah 14:23; Isaiah 34:11 Zephaniah 2:14) the King James
Version "bittern," the Revised Version (British and American) "porcupine ...
/p/porcupine.htm - 11k

Cormorant (4 Occurrences)
... Isaiah 34:11 But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and
the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out upon it the line of ...
/c/cormorant.htm - 10k

Bitterly (36 Occurrences)

/b/bitterly.htm - 17k

Bitterness (37 Occurrences)

/b/bitterness.htm - 21k

Lintels (1 Occurrence)
... Zephaniah 2:14 And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of
the nations: both the cormorant and the bittern shall lodge in the upper ...
/l/lintels.htm - 6k

Ibis (2 Occurrences)
... The Septuagint gives eibis and Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 AD) ibis;
the Revised Version, margin "bittern." See OWL. Multi-Version Concordance ...
/i/ibis.htm - 7k

Threshholds (3 Occurrences)
... (WBS). Zephaniah 2:14 And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts
of the nations: both the cormorant and the bittern shall lodge in the upper ...
/t/threshholds.htm - 7k

Daubed (9 Occurrences)
... Isaiah 14:23 And have made it for a possession of a bittern, And ponds of waters,
And daubed it with the mire of destruction, The affirmation of Jehovah of ...
/d/daubed.htm - 9k

Mire (21 Occurrences)
... Isaiah 14:23 And have made it for a possession of a bittern, And ponds of waters,
And daubed it with the mire of destruction, The affirmation of Jehovah of ...
/m/mire.htm - 13k

Concordance
Bittern (4 Occurrences)

Isaiah 14:23
I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the LORD of hosts.
(KJV JPS DBY WBS YLT)

Isaiah 34:11
But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out upon it the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness.
(KJV JPS BBE DBY WBS)

Isaiah 34:15
There made her nest hath the bittern, Yea, she layeth, and hath hatched, And hath gathered under her shadow, Only there gathered have been vultures, Each with its companion.
(YLT)

Zephaniah 2:14
And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations: both the cormorant and the bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it; their voice shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be in the thresholds; for he shall uncover the cedar work.
(KJV JPS DBY WBS)

Subtopics

Bittern

Bittern: A Species of Heron

Related Terms

Porcupine (3 Occurrences)

Cormorant (4 Occurrences)

Bitterly (36 Occurrences)

Bitterness (37 Occurrences)

Lintels (1 Occurrence)

Ibis (2 Occurrences)

Threshholds (3 Occurrences)

Daubed (9 Occurrences)

Mire (21 Occurrences)

Ponds (6 Occurrences)

Plummets (1 Occurrence)

Bill (9 Occurrences)

Besom (1 Occurrence)

Chapiters (15 Occurrences)

Chaos (4 Occurrences)

Screech (4 Occurrences)

Stork (6 Occurrences)

Affirmation (335 Occurrences)

Heron (2 Occurrences)

Measuring (42 Occurrences)

Nest (22 Occurrences)

Uncover (35 Occurrences)

Companion (44 Occurrences)

Measured (91 Occurrences)

Hawk (6 Occurrences)

Layeth (76 Occurrences)

Nobles (71 Occurrences)

Desolation (131 Occurrences)

Serpent (40 Occurrences)

Hatched (2 Occurrences)

Hedgehog (3 Occurrences)

Upper (99 Occurrences)

Edom (108 Occurrences)

Birds (125 Occurrences)

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