Exodus 22:28
Parallel Verses
New International Version
"Do not blaspheme God or curse the ruler of your people.

King James Bible
Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.

Darby Bible Translation
Thou shalt not revile the judges, nor curse a prince amongst thy people.

World English Bible
"You shall not blaspheme God, nor curse a ruler of your people.

Young's Literal Translation
'God thou dost not revile, and a prince among thy people thou dost not curse.

Exodus 22:28 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Thou shalt not revile the gods - Most commentators believe that the word gods here means magistrates. The original is אלהים Elohim, and should be understood of the true God only: Thou shalt not blaspheme or make light of [תקלל tekallel] God, the fountain of justice and power, nor curse the ruler of thy people, who derives his authority from God. We shall ever find that he who despises a good civil government, and is disaffected to that under which he lives, is one who has little fear of God before his eyes. The spirit of disaffection and sedition is ever opposed to the religion of the Bible. When those who have been pious get under the spirit of misrule, they infallibly get shorn of their spiritual strength, and become like salt that has lost its savor. He who can indulge himself in speaking evil of the civil ruler, will soon learn to blaspheme God. The highest authority says, Fear God: honor the king.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the gods. or judges

Exodus 22:8,9 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought to the judges...

Psalm 32:6 For this shall every one that is godly pray to you in a time when you may be found...

Psalm 82:1-7 God stands in the congregation of the mighty; he judges among the gods...

Psalm 138:1 I will praise you with my whole heart: before the gods will I sing praise to you.

John 10:34,35 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, You are gods...

nor curse

Exodus 21:17 And he that curses his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.

1 Samuel 24:6,10 And he said to his men, The LORD forbid that I should do this thing to my master, the LORD's anointed...

1 Samuel 26:9 And David said to Abishai, Destroy him not: for who can stretch forth his hand against the LORD's anointed, and be guiltless?

Ecclesiastes 10:20 Curse not the king, no not in your thought; and curse not the rich in your bedchamber: for a bird of the air shall carry the voice...

Acts 23:3,5 Then said Paul to him, God shall smite you, you white washed wall: for sit you to judge me after the law...

Romans 13:2-7 Whoever therefore resists the power, resists the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation...

Titus 3:1,2 Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work...

1 Peter 2:17 Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.

2 Peter 2:10 But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, self-willed...

Jude 1:8 Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities.

Library
Excursus on Usury.
The famous canonist Van Espen defines usury thus: "Usura definitur lucrum ex mutuo exactum aut speratum;" [96] and then goes on to defend the proposition that, "Usury is forbidden by natural, by divine, and by human law. The first is proved thus. Natural law, as far as its first principles are concerned, is contained in the decalogue; but usury is prohibited in the decalogue, inasmuch as theft is prohibited; and this is the opinion of the Master of the Sentences, of St. Bonaventura, of St. Thomas
Philip Schaff—The Seven Ecumenical Councils

Ciii. Zacchæus. Parable of the Pounds. Journey to Jerusalem.
(Jericho.) ^C Luke XIX. 1-28. ^c 1 And he entered and was passing through Jericho. [This was about one week before the crucifixion. Jericho is about seven miles from the Jordan and about seventeen and a half from Jerusalem.] 2 And behold, a man called by name Zacchaeus; and he was a chief publican, and he was rich. [See p. 76. It is probable that Zacchæus was a sub-contractor under some Roman knight who had bought the privilege of collecting taxes at Jericho, or perhaps the privilege of all
J. W. McGarvey—The Four-Fold Gospel

The Development of the Earlier Old Testament Laws
[Sidenote: First the principle, and then the detailed laws] If the canon of the New Testament had remained open as long as did that of the Old, there is little doubt that it also would have contained many laws, legal precedents, and ecclesiastical histories. From the writings of the Church Fathers and the records of the Catholic Church it is possible to conjecture what these in general would have been. The early history of Christianity illustrates the universal fact that the broad principles are
Charles Foster Kent—The Origin & Permanent Value of the Old Testament

The Blessing of Jacob Upon Judah. (Gen. Xlix. 8-10. )
Ver. 8. "Judah, thou, thy brethren shall praise thee; thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; before thee shall bow down the sons of thy father. Ver. 9. A lion's whelp is Judah; from the prey, my son, thou goest up; he stoopeth down, he coucheth as a lion, and as a full-grown lion, who shall rouse him up? Ver. 10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come, and unto Him the people shall adhere." Thus does dying Jacob, in announcing
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg—Christology of the Old Testament

Cross References
Acts 23:5
Paul replied, "Brothers, I did not realize that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'"

2 Peter 2:10
This is especially true of those who follow the corrupt desire of the flesh and despise authority. Bold and arrogant, they are not afraid to heap abuse on celestial beings;

Exodus 22:9
In all cases of illegal possession of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any other lost property about which somebody says, 'This is mine,' both parties are to bring their cases before the judges. The one whom the judges declare guilty must pay back double to the other.

Leviticus 24:11
The son of the Israelite woman blasphemed the Name with a curse; so they brought him to Moses. (His mother's name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri the Danite.)

Leviticus 24:15
Say to the Israelites: 'Anyone who curses their God will be held responsible;

Leviticus 24:16
anyone who blasphemes the name of the LORD is to be put to death. The entire assembly must stone them. Whether foreigner or native-born, when they blaspheme the Name they are to be put to death.

2 Samuel 16:5
As King David approached Bahurim, a man from the same clan as Saul's family came out from there. His name was Shimei son of Gera, and he cursed as he came out.

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