Psalm 89:3
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
You have said, “I have made a covenant with my chosen one; I have sworn to David my servant:

King James Bible
I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant,

American Standard Version
I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant:

Douay-Rheims Bible
I have made a covenant with my elect: I have sworn to David my servant:

English Revised Version
I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant;

Webster's Bible Translation
I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn to David my servant,

Psalm 89:3 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

He who complains thus without knowing any comfort, and yet without despairing, gathers himself up afresh for prayer. With ואני he contrasts himself with the dead who are separated from God's manifestation of love. Being still in life, although under wrath that apparently has no end, he strains every nerve to struggle through in prayer until he shall reach God's love. His complaints are petitions, for they are complaints that are poured forth before God. The destiny under which for a long time he has been more like one dying than living, reaches back even into his youth. מנּער (since נער is everywhere undeclined) is equivalent to מנּערי. The ἐξηπορήθην of the lxx is the right indicator for the understanding of the ἅπαξ λ.ε.γ. אפוּנה. Aben-Ezra and Kimchi derive it from פּן, like עלה from על,

(Note: The derivation is not contrary to the genius of the language; the supplementing productive force of the language displayed in the liturgical poetry of the synagogue, also changes particles into verbs: vid., Zunz, Die synagogaie Poesie des Mittelalters, S. 421.)

and assign to it the signification of dubitare. But it may be more safely explained after the Arabic words Arab. afana, afina, ma'fûn (root 'f, to urge forwards, push), in which the fundamental notion of driving back, narrowing and exhausting, is transferred to a weakening or weakness of the intellect. We might also compare פּנה, Arab. faniya, "to disappear, vanish, pass away;" but the ἐξηπορήθην of the lxx favours the kinship with that Arab. afina, infirma mente et consilii inops fuit,

(Note: Abulwald also explains אפוּנה after the Arabic, but in a way that cannot be accepted, viz., "for a long time onwards," from the Arabic iffân (ibbân, iff, afaf, ifâf, taiffah), time, period - time conceived of in the onward rush, the constant succession of its moments.)

which has been already compared by Castell. The aorist of the lxx, however, is just as erroneous in this instance as in Psalm 42:5; Psalm 55:3; Psalm 57:5. In all these instances the cohortative denotes the inward result following from an outward compulsion, as they say in Hebrew: I lay hold of trembling (Isaiah 13:8; Job 18:20; Job 21:6) or joy (Isaiah 35:10; Isaiah 51:11), when the force of circumstances drive one into such states of mind. Labouring under the burden of divine dispensations of a terrifying character, he finds himself in a state of mental weakness and exhaustion, or of insensible (senseless) fright; over him as their destined goal before many others go God's burnings of wrath (plur. only in this instance), His terrible decrees (vid., concerning בעת on Psalm 18:5) have almost annihilated him. צמּתתוּני is not an impossible form (Olshausen, 251, a), but an intensive form of צמּתוּ, the last part of the already inflected verb being repeated, as in עהבוּ הבוּ, Hosea 4:18 (cf. in the department of the noun, פּיפיּות, edge-edges equals many edges, Psalm 149:6), perhaps under the influence of the derivative.

(Note: Heidenheim interprets: Thy terrors are become to me as צמתת (Leviticus 25:23), i.e., inalienably my own.)

The corrections צמתּתני (from צמתת) or צמּתתני (from צמּת) are simple enough; but it is more prudent to let tradition judge of that which is possible in the usage of the language. In Psalm 88:18 the burnings become floods; the wrath of God can be compared to every destroying and overthrowing element. The billows threaten to swallow him up, without any helping hand being stretched out to him on the part of any of his lovers and friends. In v. 19a to be now explained according to Job 16:14, viz., My familiar friends are gloomy darkness; i.e., instead of those who were hitherto my familiars (Job 19:14), darkness is become my familiar friend? One would have thought that it ought then to have been מידּעי (Schnurrer), or, according to Proverbs 7:4, מודעי, and that, in connection with this sense of the noun, מחשׁך ought as subject to have the precedence, that consequently מידּעי is subject and מחשׁך predicate: my familiar friends have lost themselves in darkness, are become absolutely invisible (Hitzig at last). But the regular position of the words is kept to if it is interpreted: my familiar friends are reduced to gloomy darkness as my familiar friend, and the plural is justified by Job 19:14 : Mother and sister (do I call) the worm. With this complaint the harp falls from the poet's hands. He is silent, and waits on God, that He may solve this riddle of affliction. From the Book of Job we might infer that He also actually appeared to him. He is more faithful than men. No soul that in the midst of wrath lays hold upon His love, whether with a firm or with a trembling hand, is suffered to be lost.

Psalm 89:3 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

made

Psalm 89:28,34,39 My mercy will I keep for him for ever more, and my covenant shall stand fast with him...

2 Samuel 7:10-16 Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own...

2 Samuel 23:5 Although my house be not so with God; yet he has made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure...

1 Kings 8:16 Since the day that I brought forth my people Israel out of Egypt, I chose no city out of all the tribes of Israel to build an house...

Isaiah 55:3 Incline your ear, and come to me: hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you...

Jeremiah 30:9 But they shall serve the LORD their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up to them.

Jeremiah 33:20,21 Thus said the LORD; If you can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night...

Ezekiel 34:23,24 And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; he shall feed them...

Hosea 3:5 Afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the LORD their God, and David their king...

Luke 1:32,33 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give to him the throne of his father David...

my chosen

Psalm 89:19 Then you spoke in vision to your holy one, and said, I have laid help on one that is mighty...

Psalm 78:70 He chose David also his servant, and took him from the sheepfolds:

Isaiah 42:1 Behold my servant, whom I uphold; my elect, in whom my soul delights; I have put my spirit on him...

Matthew 3:17 And see a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

Matthew 12:18-21 Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my spirit on him...

sworn

Psalm 89:35 Once have I sworn by my holiness that I will not lie to David.

Psalm 132:11 The LORD has sworn in truth to David; he will not turn from it; Of the fruit of your body will I set on your throne.

2 Samuel 3:9 So do God to Abner, and more also, except, as the LORD has sworn to David, even so I do to him;

Acts 2:30 Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh...

Hebrews 7:21 (For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said to him, The Lord swore and will not repent...

Cross References
Matthew 1:1
The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

Acts 2:30
Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne,

1 Kings 8:16
Since the day that I brought my people Israel out of Egypt, I chose no city out of all the tribes of Israel in which to build a house, that my name might be there. But I chose David to be over my people Israel.'

Nehemiah 1:5
And I said, "O LORD God of heaven, the great and awesome God who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments,

Psalm 89:28
My steadfast love I will keep for him forever, and my covenant will stand firm for him.

Psalm 132:11
The LORD swore to David a sure oath from which he will not turn back: "One of the sons of your body I will set on your throne.

Ezekiel 37:26
I will make a covenant of peace with them. It shall be an everlasting covenant with them. And I will set them in their land and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in their midst forevermore.

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