Psalm 35:19
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Let not those rejoice over me who are wrongfully my foes, and let not those wink the eye who hate me without cause.

King James Bible
Let not them that are mine enemies wrongfully rejoice over me: neither let them wink with the eye that hate me without a cause.

American Standard Version
Let not them that are mine enemies wrongfully rejoice over me; Neither let them wink with the eye that hate me without a cause.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Let not them that are my enemies wrongfully rejoice over me : who have hated me without cause, and wink with the eyes.

English Revised Version
Let not them that are mine enemies wrongfully rejoice over me: neither let them wink with the eye that hate me without a cause.

Webster's Bible Translation
Let not them that are my enemies wrongfully rejoice over me: neither let them wink with the eye that hate me without a cause.

Psalm 35:19 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The second part begins with two strophes of sorrowful description of the wickedness of the enemy. The futures in Psalm 35:11, Psalm 35:12 describe that which at present takes place. עדי חמס are μάρτυρες ἄδικοι (lxx). They demand from him a confession of acts and things which lie entirely outside his consciousness and his way of acting (cf. Psalm 69:5): they would gladly brand him as a perjurer, as an usurper, and as a plunderer. What David complains of in Psalm 35:12, we hear Saul confess in 1 Samuel 24:18; the charge of ingratitude is therefore well-grounded. שׁכול לנפשׁי is not dependent on ישׁלּמוּני, in which case one would have looked for כּשׁול rather than שׁכול, but a substantival clause: "bereavement is to my soul," its condition is that of being forsaken by all those who formerly showed me marks of affection; all these have, as it were, died off so far as I am concerned. Not only had David been obliged to save his parents by causing them to flee to Moab, but Michal was also torn from him, Jonathan removed, and all those at the court of Saul, who had hitherto sought the favour and friendship of the highly-gifted and highly-honoured son-in-law of the king, were alienated from him. And how sincerely and sympathisingly had he reciprocated their leanings towards himself! By ואני in Psalm 35:13, he contrasts himself with the ungrateful and unfeeling ones. Instead of לבשׁתּי שׁק, the expression is לבוּשׁי שׁק; the tendency of poetry for the use of the substantival clause is closely allied to its fondness for well-conceived brevity and pictorial definition. He manifested towards them a love which knew no distinction between the ego and tu, which regarded their sorrow and their guilt as his own, and joined with them in their expiation for it; his head was lowered upon his breast, or he cowered, like Elijah (1 Kings 18:42), upon the ground with his head hanging down upon his breast even to his knees, so that that which came forth from the inmost depths of his nature returned again as it were in broken accents into his bosom. Riehm's rendering, "at their ungodliness and hostility my prayer for things not executed came back," is contrary to the connection, and makes one look for אלי instead of אל־חיקי. Perret-Gentil correctly renders it, Je priai la tte penche sur la poitrine.

The Psalmist goes on to say in Psalm 35:14, I went about as for a friend, for a brother to me, i.e., as if the sufferer had been such to me. With התחלּך, used of the solemn slowness of gait, which corresponds to the sacredness of pain, alternates שׁחח used of the being bowed down very low, in which the heavy weight of pain finds expression. כּאבל־אם, not: like the mourning (from אבל, like הבל from הבל) of a mother (Hitzig), but, since a personal אבל is more natural, and next to the mourning for an only child the loss of a mother (cf. Genesis 24:67) strikes the deepest wound: like one who mourns (אבל־,

(Note: According to the old Babylonian reading (belonging to a period when Pathach and Segol were as yet not distinguished from one another), כּאבל (with the sign of Pathach and the stroke for Raphe below equals ); vid., Pinsker, Zur Geschichte des Karaismus, S. 141, and Einleitung, S. 118.)

like לבן־, Genesis 49:12, from אבל, construct state, like טמא) for a mother (the objective genitive, as in Genesis 27:41; Deuteronomy 34:8; Amos 8:10; Jeremiah 6:26). קדר signifies the colours, outward appearance, and attire of mourning: with dark clothes, with tearful unwashed face, and with neglected beard. But as for them - how do they act at the present time, when he finds himself in צלע (Psalm 38:17; Job 18:12), a sideway direction, i.e., likely to fall (from צלע, Arab. ḍl‛, to incline towards the side)? They rejoice and gather themselves together, and this assemblage of ungrateful friends rejoicing over another's misfortune, is augmented by the lowest rabble that attach themselves to them. The verb נכה means to smite; Niph. נכּא, Job 30:6, to be driven forth with a whip, after which the lxx renders it μάστιγες, Symm. πλῆκται, and the Targum conterentes me verbis suis; cf. הכּה בּלשׂון, Jeremiah 18:18. But נכים cannot by itself mean smiters with the tongue. The adjective נכה signifies elsewhere with רגלים, one who is smitten in the feet, i.e., one who limps or halts, and with רוּח, but also without any addition, in Isaiah 16:7, one smitten in spirit, i.e., one deeply troubled or sorrowful. Thus, therefore, נכים from נכה, like גּאים from גּאה, may mean smitten, men, i.e., men who are brought low or reduced (Hengstenberg). It might also, after the Arabic nawika, to be injured in mind, anwak, stupid, silly (from the same root נך, to prick, smite, wound, cf. ichtalla, to be pierced through equals mad), be understood as those mentally deranged, enraged at nothing or without cause. But the former definition of the notion of the word is favoured by the continuation of the idea of the verbal adjective נכים by ולא ידעתּי, persons of whom I have hitherto taken no notice because they were far removed from me, i.e., men belonging to the dregs of the people (cf. Job 19:18; Job 30:1). The addition of ולא ידעתי certainly makes Olshausen's conjecture that we should read נכרים somewhat natural; but the expression then becomes tautological, and there are other instances also in which psalm-poesy goes beyond the ordinary range of words, in order to find language to describe that which is loathsome, in the most glaring way. פרע, to tear, rend in pieces, viz., with abusive and slanderous words (like Arab. qr‛ II) also does not occur anywhere else.

And what remarkable language we now meet with in Psalm 35:16! מעוג does not mean scorn or buffoonery, as Bttcher and Hitzig imagine,

(Note: The Talmudic עגה (לשׁון), B. Sanhedrin 101b, which is said to mean "a jesting way of speaking," has all the less place here, as the reading wavers between עגה (עגא) and אגא.)

but according to 1 Kings 17:12, a cake of a round formation (like the Talmudic עגּה, a circle); לעג, jeering, jesting. Therefore לעגי מעוג means: mockers for a cake, i.e., those who for a delicate morsel, for the sake of dainty fare, make scornful jokes, viz., about me, the persecuted one, vile parasites; German Tellerlecker, Bratenriecher, Greek κνισσοκόλακες, ψωμοκόλακες, Mediaeval Latin buccellarii. This לעגי מלוג, which even Rashi interprets in substantially the same manner, stands either in a logical co-ordinate relation (vid., on Isaiah 19:11) or in a logical as well as grammatical subordinate relation to its regens חנפי. In the former case, it would be equivalent to: the profane, viz., the cake-jesters; in the latter, which is the more natural, and quite suitable: the profane ( equals the profanest, vid., Psalm 45:13; Isaiah 29:19; Ezekiel 7:24) among cake-jesters. The בּ is not the Beth of companionship or fellowship, to express which עם or את (Hosea 7:5) would have been used, but Beth essentiae or the Beth of characterisation: in the character of the most abject examples of this class of men do they gnash upon him with their teeth. The gerund חרק (of the noise of the teeth being pressed together, like Arab. ḥrq, of the crackling of a fire and the grating of a file), which is used according to Ges. 131, 4, b, carries its subject in itself. They gnash upon him with their teeth after the manner of the profanest among those, by whom their neighbour's honour is sold for a delicate morsel.

Psalm 35:19 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Let

Psalm 35:15 But in my adversity they rejoiced, and gathered themselves together: yes, the attackers gathered themselves together against me...

Psalm 13:4 Lest my enemy say, I have prevailed against him; and those that trouble me rejoice when I am moved.

Psalm 25:2 O my God, I trust in you: let me not be ashamed, let not my enemies triumph over me.

Psalm 38:16 For I said, Hear me, lest otherwise they should rejoice over me: when my foot slips, they magnify themselves against me.

John 16:20-22 Truly, truly, I say to you, That you shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice: and you shall be sorrowful...

Revelation 11:7-10 And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them...

wrongfully [heb.] falsely

Psalm 38:19 But my enemies are lively, and they are strong: and they that hate me wrongfully are multiplied.

wink

Job 15:12 Why does your heart carry you away? and what do your eyes wink at,

Proverbs 6:13 He winks with his eyes, he speaks with his feet, he teaches with his fingers;

Proverbs 10:10 He that winks with the eye causes sorrow: but a prating fool shall fall.

that hate

Psalm 69:4 They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head: they that would destroy me, being my enemies wrongfully...

Psalm 109:3 They compassed me about also with words of hatred; and fought against me without a cause.

Psalm 119:161 Princes have persecuted me without a cause: but my heart stands in awe of your word.

1 Samuel 24:11,12 Moreover, my father, see, yes, see the skirt of your robe in my hand: for in that I cut off the skirt of your robe, and killed you not...

Lamentations 3:52 My enemies chased me sore, like a bird, without cause.

John 15:25 But this comes to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause.

Cross References
John 15:25
But the word that is written in their Law must be fulfilled: 'They hated me without a cause.'

Psalm 13:4
lest my enemy say, "I have prevailed over him," lest my foes rejoice because I am shaken.

Psalm 30:1
I will extol you, O LORD, for you have drawn me up and have not let my foes rejoice over me.

Psalm 35:24
Vindicate me, O LORD, my God, according to your righteousness, and let them not rejoice over me!

Psalm 38:16
For I said, "Only let them not rejoice over me, who boast against me when my foot slips!"

Psalm 38:19
But my foes are vigorous, they are mighty, and many are those who hate me wrongfully.

Psalm 59:4
for no fault of mine, they run and make ready. Awake, come to meet me, and see!

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