Job 31:13
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
“If I have rejected the cause of my manservant or my maidservant, when they brought a complaint against me,

King James Bible
If I did despise the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, when they contended with me;

American Standard Version
If I have despised the cause of my man-servant or of my maid-servant, When they contended with me;

Douay-Rheims Bible
If I have despised to abide judgment with my manservant, or my maidservant, when they had any controversy against me:

English Revised Version
If I did despise the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, when they contended with me:

Webster's Bible Translation
If I despised the cause of my man-servant or of my maid-servant, when they contended with me;

Job 31:13 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

5 If I had intercourse with falsehood,

And my foot hastened after deceit:

6 Let Him weigh me in the balances of justice,

And let Eloah know my innocence.

7 If my steps turned aside from the way,

And my heart followed mine eyes,

And any spot hath cleaved to my hands:

8 May I sow and another eat,

And let my shoots be rooted out.

We have translated שׁוא (on the form vid., on Job 15:31, and the idea on Job 11:11) falsehood, for it signifies desolateness and hollowness under a concealing mask, therefore the contradiction between what is without and within, lying and deceit, parall. מרמה, deceit, delusion, imposition. The phrase הלך עם־שׁוא is based on the personification of deceit, or on thinking of it in connection with the מתי־שׁוא (Job 11:11). The form ותּחשׁ cannot be derived from חוּשׁ, from which it ought to be ותּחשׁ, like ויּסר Judges 4:18 and freq., ויּשׂר (serravit) 1 Chronicles 20:3, ויּעט (increpavit) 1 Samuel 25:14. Many grammarians (Ges. 72, rem. 9; Olsh. 257, g) explain the Pathach instead of Kametz as arising from the virtual doubling of the guttural (Dagesh forte implicitum), for which, however, no ground exists here; Ewald (232, b) explains it by "the hastening of the tone towards the beginning," which explains nothing, since the retreat of the tone has not this effect anywhere else. We must content ourselves with the supposition that ותּחשׁ is formed from a חשׁה having a similar meaning to חוּשׁ (חישׁ), as also ויּעט, 1 Samuel 15:19, comp. 1 Samuel 14:32, is from a עטח of similar signification with עיט. The hypothetical antecedent, Job 31:5, is followed by the conclusion, Job 31:6 : If he have done this, may God not spare him. He has, however, not done it; and if God puts him to an impartial trial, He will learn his תּמּה, integritas, purity of character. The "balance of justice" is the balance of the final judgment, which the Arabs call Arab. mı̂zân 'l-a‛mâl, "the balance of actions (works)."

(Note: The manual of ethics by Ghazzli is entitled mı̂zân el-a‛mâl in the original, מאזני צדק in Bar-Chisdai's translation, vid., Gosche on Ghazzli's life and works, S. 261 of the volume of the Berliner Akademie d. Wissensch. for 1858.)

Job 31:7 also begins hypothetically: if my steps (אשּׁוּרי from אשּׁוּר, which is used alternately with אשׁוּר without distinction, contrary to Ew. 260, b) swerve (תּטּה, the predicate to the plur. which follows, designating a thing, according to Ges. 146, 3) from the way (i.e., the one right way), and my heart went after my eyes, i.e., if it followed the drawing of the lust of the eye, viz., to obtain by deceit or extortion the property of another, and if a spot (מאוּם, macula, as Daniel 1:4, equals מוּם, Job 11:15; according to Ew., equivalent to מחוּם, what is blackened and blackens, then a blemish, and according to Olsh., in מאוּמה...לא, like the French ne ... point) clave to my hands: I will sow, and let another eat, and let my shoots be rooted out. The poet uses צאצאים elsewhere of offspring of the body or posterity, Job 5:25; Job 21:8; Job 27:14; here, however, as in Isaiah, with whom he has this word in common, Job 34:2; Job 42:5, the produce of the ground is meant. Job 31:8 is, according to John 4:37, a λόγος, a proverb. In so far as he may have acted thus, Job calls down upon himself the curse of Deuteronomy 38:20f.: what he sows, let strangers reap and eat; and even when that which is sown does not fall into the hands of strangers, let it be uprooted.

Job 31:13 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the cause

Exodus 21:20,21,26,27 And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished...

Leviticus 25:43,46 You shall not rule over him with rigor; but shall fear your God...

Deuteronomy 15:12-15 And if your brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold to you, and serve you six years...

Jeremiah 34:14-17 At the end of seven years let you go every man his brother an Hebrew, which has been sold to you; and when he has served you six years...

Ephesians 6:9 And, you masters, do the same things to them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven...

Colossians 4:1 Masters, give to your servants that which is just and equal; knowing that you also have a Master in heaven.

when (In ancient times slaves had no action at law against their owners; but Job admitted them to all civil rights, and permitted them to complain even against himself.)

Cross References
Ephesians 6:9
Masters, do the same to them, and stop your threatening, knowing that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and that there is no partiality with him.

Deuteronomy 24:14
"You shall not oppress a hired worker who is poor and needy, whether he is one of your brothers or one of the sojourners who are in your land within your towns.

Deuteronomy 24:15
You shall give him his wages on the same day, before the sun sets (for he is poor and counts on it), lest he cry against you to the LORD, and you be guilty of sin.

Job 31:14
what then shall I do when God rises up? When he makes inquiry, what shall I answer him?

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