Exodus 7:3
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and though I multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt,

King James Bible
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

American Standard Version
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But I shall harden his heart, and shall multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt,

English Revised Version
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

Webster's Bible Translation
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

Exodus 7:3 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The Genealogy of Moses and Aaron. - "These are their (Moses' and Aaron's) father's-houses." בּית־אבות father's-houses (not fathers' house) is a composite noun, so formed that the two words not only denote one idea, but are treated grammatically as one word, like בּית־עצבּים idol-houses (1 Samuel 31:9), and בּית־בּמות high-place-houses (cf. Ges. 108, 3; Ewald, 270c). Father's house was a technical term applied to a collection of families, called by the name of a common ancestor. The father's-houses were the larger divisions into which the families (mishpachoth), the largest subdivisions of the tribes of Israel, were grouped. To show clearly the genealogical position of Levi, the tribe-father of Moses and Aaron, among the sons of Jacob, the genealogy commences with Reuben, the first-born of Jacob, and gives the names of such of his sons and those of Simeon as were the founders of families (Genesis 46:9-10). Then follows Levi; and not only are the names of his three sons given, but the length of his life is mentioned (Exodus 6:16), also that of his son Kohath and his descendant Amram, because they were the tribe-fathers of Moses and Aaron. But the Amram mentioned in Exodus 6:20 as the father of Moses, cannot be the same person as the Amram who was the son of Kohath (Exodus 6:18), but must be a later descendant. For, however the sameness of names may seem to favour the identity of the persons, if we simply look at the genealogy before us, a comparison of this passage with Numbers 3:27-28 will show the impossibility of such an assumption. "According to Numbers 3:27-28, the Kohathites were divided (in Moses' time) into the four branches, Amramites, Izharites, Hebronites, and Uzzielites, who consisted together of 8600 men and boys (women and girls not being included). Of these, about a fourth, or 2150 men, would belong to the Amramites. Now, according to Exodus 18:3-4, Moses himself had only two sons. Consequently, if Amram the son of Kohath, and tribe-father of the Amramites, was the same person as Amram the father of Moses, Moses must have had 2147 brothers and brothers' sons (the brothers' daughters, the sisters, and their daughters, not being reckoned at all). But as this is absolutely impossible, it must be granted that Amram the son of Kohath was not the father of Moses, and that an indefinitely long list of generations has been omitted between the former and his descendant of the same name" (Tiele, Chr. des A. T. p. 36).

(Note: The objections of M. Baumgarten to these correct remarks have been conclusively met by Kurtz (Hist. of O. C. vol. ii. p. 144). We find a similar case in the genealogy of Ezra in Ezra 7:3, which passes over from Azariah the son of Meraioth to Azariah the son of Johanan, and omits five links between the two, as we may see from 1 Chronicles 6:7-11. In the same way the genealogy before us skips over from Amram the son of Kohath to Amram the father of Moses without mentioning the generations between.)

The enumeration of only four generations, viz., Levi, Iohath, Amram, Moses, is unmistakeably related to Genesis 15:16, where it is stated that the fourth generation would return to Canaan. Amram's wife Jochebed, who is merely spoken of in general terms as a daughter of Levi (a Levitess) in Exodus 2:1 and Numbers 26:59, is called here the דּודה "aunt" (father's sister) of Amram, a marriage which was prohibited in the Mosaic law (Leviticus 18:12), but was allowed before the giving of the law; so that there is no reason for following the lxx and Vulgate, and rendering the word, in direct opposition to the usage of the language, patruelis, the father's brother's daughter. Amram's sons are placed according to their age: Aaron, then Moses, as Aaron was three years older than his brother. Their sister Miriam was older still (vid., Exodus 2:4). In the lxx, Vulg., and one Hebrew MS, she is mentioned here; but this is a later interpolation. In Exodus 6:21. not only are the sons of Aaron mentioned (Exodus 6:23), but those of two of Amram's brothers, Izhar and Uzziel (Exodus 6:21, Exodus 6:22), and also Phinehas, the son of Aaron's son Eleazar (Exodus 6:25); as the genealogy was intended to trace the descent of the principal priestly families, among which again special prominence is given to Aaron and Eleazar by the introduction of their wives. On the other hand, none of the sons of Moses are mentioned, because his dignity was limited to his own person, and his descendants fell behind those of Aaron, and were simply reckoned among the non-priestly families of Levi. The Korahites and Uzzielites are mentioned, but a superior rank was assigned to them in the subsequent history to that of other Levitical families (cf. Numbers 16-17; Numbers 26:11, and Numbers 3:30 with Leviticus 10:4). Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the princely tribe of Judah, and her brother Naashon was a tribe-prince of Judah (cf. Numbers 2:3). אבות ראשׁי (Exodus 6:25), a frequent abbreviation for בית־אבות ראשׁי, heads of the father's-houses of the Levites. In Exodus 6:26 and Exodus 6:27, with which the genealogy closes, the object of introducing it is very clearly shown in the expression, "These are that Aaron and Moses," at the beginning of Exodus 6:26; and again, "These are that Moses and Aaron," at the close of Exodus 6:27. The reversal of the order of the names is also to be noticed. In the genealogy itself Aaron stands first, as the elder of the two; in the conclusion, which leads over to the historical narrative that follows, Moses takes precedence of his elder brother, as being the divinely appointed redeemer of Israel. On the expression, "according to their armies," see Exodus 7:4.

Exodus 7:3 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And I

Exodus 4:21,29 And the LORD said to Moses, When you go to return into Egypt, see that you do all those wonders before Pharaoh...

multiply

Exodus 4:7 And he said, Put your hand into your bosom again. And he put his hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and...

Exodus 9:16 And in very deed for this cause have I raised you up, for to show in you my power...

Exodus 11:9 And the LORD said to Moses, Pharaoh shall not listen to you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.

Deuteronomy 4:34 Or has God assayed to go and take him a nation from the middle of another nation, by temptations, by signs, and by wonders, and by war...

Deuteronomy 7:19 The great temptations which your eyes saw, and the signs, and the wonders, and the mighty hand, and the stretched out arm...

Nehemiah 9:10 And showed signs and wonders on Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land...

Psalm 78:43-51 How he had worked his signs in Egypt, and his wonders in the field of Zoan...

Psalm 105:27-36 They showed his signs among them, and wonders in the land of Ham...

Psalm 135:9 Who sent tokens and wonders into the middle of you, O Egypt, on Pharaoh, and on all his servants.

Isaiah 51:9 Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old...

Jeremiah 32:20,21 Which have set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even to this day, and in Israel, and among other men; and have made you a name...

Micah 7:15 According to the days of your coming out of the land of Egypt will I show to him marvelous things.

John 4:48 Then said Jesus to him, Except you see signs and wonders, you will not believe.

Acts 2:22 You men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs...

Acts 7:36 He brought them out, after that he had showed wonders and signs in the land of Egypt, and in the Red sea...

Romans 15:19 Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about to Illyricum...

Cross References
Acts 7:36
This man led them out, performing wonders and signs in Egypt and at the Red Sea and in the wilderness for forty years.

Romans 9:18
So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.

Exodus 3:20
So I will stretch out my hand and strike Egypt with all the wonders that I will do in it; after that he will let you go.

Exodus 4:21
And the LORD said to Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the miracles that I have put in your power. But I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go.

Exodus 7:13
Still Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the LORD had said.

Exodus 11:9
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Pharaoh will not listen to you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt."

Exodus 11:10
Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go out of his land.

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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