Nehemiah 13:13
And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah: and next to them was Hanan the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah: for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute to their brothers.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13) And I made.—The reform was made effectual by organisation. Eliashib had failed in his duty (Nehemiah 13:4); and the appointment of treasurers (Nehemiah 12:44) is now confirmed. One of the treasurers was a layman named Hanan (Nehemiah 10:22); but they were all faithful men, and are mentioned in connection with the building of the wall. The majority being priests and Levites, they distributed “to their brethren.” Zadok was probably the Zidkijah of Nehemiah 10:1, and the secretary of Nehemiah.

Nehemiah 13:13. For they were counted faithful — By the consent of those who knew them. They had approved themselves faithful in other trusts committed to them, and so had purchased to themselves this good degree, 1 Timothy 3:13. Men should be tried first, and then trusted; tried in the less, and then trusted with more. The office of these treasurers was to receive and pay; to distribute to their brethren in due season, and due proportions. And Nehemiah sought out for faithful men the more diligently, because he had had experience of the perfidiousness of the former trustees.13:10-14 If a sacred character will not keep men from setting an evil example, it must not shelter any one from deserved blame and punishment. The Levites had been wronged; their portions had not been given them. They were gone to get livelihoods for themselves and their families, for their profession would not maintain them. A maintenance not sufficient, makes a poor ministry. The work is neglected, because the workmen are. Nehemiah laid the fault upon the rulers. Both ministers and people, who forsake religion and the services of it, and magistrates, who do not what they can to keep them to it, will have much to answer for. He delayed not to bring the Levites to their places again, and that just payment should be made. Nehemiah on every occasion looked up to God, and committed himself and all his affairs to Him. It pleased him to think that he had been of use to revive and support religion in his country. He here refers to God, not in pride, but with a humble appeal concerning his honest intention in what he had done. He prays, Remember me; not, Reward me. Wipe not out my good deeds; not, Publish them, or record them. Yet he was rewarded, and his good deeds recorded. God does more than we are able to ask.I gathered them together - Nehemiah gathered the Levites from their lands, and reinstated them in their set offices. Ne 13:10-14. Nehemiah Reforms the Officers in the House of God.

10-13. And I perceived that the portions of the Levites had not been given them—The people, disgusted with the malversations of Eliashib, or the lax and irregular performance of the sacred rites, withheld the tithes, so that the ministers of religion were compelled for their livelihood to withdraw to their patrimonial possessions in the country. The temple services had ceased; all religious duties had fallen into neglect. The money put into the sacred treasury had been squandered in the entertainment of an Ammonite heathen, an open and contemptuous enemy of God and His people. The return of the governor put an end to these disgraceful and profane proceedings. He administered a sharp rebuke to those priests to whom the management of the temple and its services was committed, for the total neglect of their duties, and the violation of the solemn promises which they had made to him at his departure. He upbraided them with the serious charge of having not only withheld from men their dues, but of having robbed God, by neglecting the care of His house and service. And thus having roused them to a sense of duty and incited them to testify their godly sorrow for their criminal negligence by renewed devotedness to their sacred work, Nehemiah restored the temple services. He recalled the dispersed Levites to the regular discharge of their duties; while the people at large, perceiving that their contributions would be no longer perverted to improper uses, willingly brought in their tithes as formerly. Men of integrity and good report were appointed to act as trustees of the sacred treasures, and thus order, regularity, and active service were re-established in the temple.

Zadok the scribe; the ecclesiastical scribe, who was to keep the accounts of the receipts and disbursements.

They were counted faithful; by common fame, and the consent of those who knew them. Such he now sought out the more diligently, because he had late experience of the perfidiousness of the former trustees.

To distribute unto their brethren, according to their several families, as the law had prescribed. And I made treasurers over the treasuries,.... New ones, since the others appointed were either dead or unfaithful to their trust, Nehemiah 12:44,

Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe; who also was a priest, as Ezra was both priest and scribe; one that besides his office as a priest was expert in the law, and capable of instructing others:

and of the Levites, Pedaiah, and next to them was Hanan the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah, for they were counted faithful; had a good report of all that knew them, for men of fidelity and uprightness, and so fit for such a trust:

and their office was to distribute unto their brethren; to deliver to them their share in the tithes, first fruits, &c.

And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah: and next to them was Hanan the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah: for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute unto their brethren.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
13. Shelemiah the priest and Zadok the scribe] It is natural to conjecture from the fact that these names are followed by ‘and of the Levites,’ that Shelemiah and Zadok were priests, and that the treasurers consisted of two priests and two Levites.

‘Shelemiah the priest’ is perhaps the same as the Shelemiah of Nehemiah 3:30; and if so, ‘Zadok the scribe’ may be identified with ‘Zadok the son of Immer’ whose name occurs in Nehemiah 3:29, and who was undoubtedly of priestly descent (cf. Immer, Nehemiah 7:40). The title of ‘scribe’ given to him and Ezra, though both of priestly origin, shows that the work of ‘the scribe’ was obtaining increasing importance. Whether it implies that Ezra was dead and that Zadok had succeeded to his office, is an interesting question, but one which we have no means of deciding.

Pedaiah] Possibly the same who is mentioned in Nehemiah 8:4.

next to them] Literally ‘upon their hand,’ i.e. attending and assisting, cf. Nehemiah 11:24, ‘at the king’s hand.

Hanan the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah] We have had mention of Mattaniah as a Levitical house representing the sons of Asaph (Nehemiah 11:17, Nehemiah 12:8; Nehemiah 12:25-35).

We may conjecture that Shelemiah represented the Temple priests, Zadok the ‘judicial’ section of the priests; Pedaiah the Levites proper, and Hanan the singers and porters.

their office was] R.V. their duty was. The construction is the same as in Ezra 10:12, but proved too difficult for the versions. The LXX. combines the two clauses, ὅτι πίστοι ἐλογίσθησαν ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς μερίζειν τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς αὐτῶν, Vulg. ‘et ipsis creditae sunt partes patrum suorum.’

to distribute unto their brethren] i.e. to distribute fairly among the various houses, and to decide upon the Levites’ tenth paid to the priests.Verse 13. - And I made treasurers. It was perhaps now for the first time that special treasurers were provided to have the charge of the temple store-chambers, these having hitherto been under the superintendence of the high priest (ver. 4). The appointment mentioned in Nehemiah 12:44 is probably the same with this; and the entire duty of the treasurers is to be learnt by combining that passage with the present. They were to be both the collectors and the dispensers of the tithes. Of the four treasurers, one was a priest, one a Levite, one a layman of rank (see Nehemiah 10:22), and one a professional scribe. This last, Zadok, is perhaps to be identified with the "Zidkijah" of Nehemiah 10:1, who appears to have been Nehemiah's private secretary (see the comment ad loc.). Unto their brethren i.e. to the priests and Levites, brethren of Shelemiah and Pedaiah. At his return he directed his attention to the evil committed by Eliashib in preparing a chamber in the court of the temple (בּ הבין like Ezra 8:15) for Tobiah.
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