Judges 1:29
Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelled in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelled in Gezer among them.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(29) Neither did Ephraim.—See Joshua 16:10. Gezer.—This town was not won from the Canaanites till its capture by Pharaoh, who gave it as a present to his daughter, the wife of Solomon (1Kings 9:16).

Jdg 1:29. Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites — So far from it, that it appears they did not so much as exact any tribute from them, but made a covenant of friendship with them, which was a still greater crime. The Canaanites dwelt in Gezer — Which they possessed till Solomon’s time; 1 Kings 9:6. And to dwell among a people often signifies to have a quiet settlement, as 2 Kings 4:13. 1:21-36 The people of Israel were very careless of their duty and interest. Owing to slothfulness and cowardice, they would not be at the pains to complete their conquests. It was also owing to their covetousness: they were willing to let the Canaanites live among them, that they might make advantage of them. They had not the dread and detestation of idolatry they ought to have had. The same unbelief that kept their fathers forty years out of Canaan, kept them now out of the full possession of it. Distrust of the power and promise of God deprived them of advantages, and brought them into troubles. Thus many a believer who begins well is hindered. His graces languish, his lusts revive, Satan plies him with suitable temptations, the world recovers its hold; he brings guilt into his conscience, anguish into his heart, discredit on his character, and reproach on the gospel. Though he may have sharp rebukes, and be so recovered that he does not perish, yet he will have deeply to lament his folly through his remaining days; and upon his dying bed to mourn over the opportunities of glorifying God and serving the church he has lost. We can have no fellowship with the enemies of God within us or around us, but to our hurt; therefore our only wisdom is to maintain unceasing war against them.The site of this new Luz is not known, but "the land of the Hittites" was apparently in the north of Palestine, on the borders of Syria (Genesis 10:15 note). 27-36. The same course of subjugation was carried on in the other tribes to a partial extent, and with varying success. Many of the natives, no doubt, during the progress of this exterminating war, saved themselves by flight and became, it is thought, the first colonists in Greece, Italy, and other countries. But a large portion made a stout resistance and retained possession of their old abodes in Canaan. In other cases, when the natives were vanquished, avarice led the Israelites to spare the idolaters, contrary to the express command of God; and their disobedience to His orders in this matter involved them in many troubles which this book describes. Which they possessed till Solomon’s time. Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer,.... Not so much as made them tributaries, but made a covenant with them, it is probable, contrary to the express will of God:

but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them; the Ephraimites agreeing to it, and here they dwelt to the times of Solomon; See Gill on Joshua 16:10; where indeed they are said to be under tribute; but that seems to respect some later time, and not when they were first admitted to dwell among them, since no mention is made of it here.

Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
29. Cf. Joshua 16:10.

Gezer] An ancient Canaanite city mentioned in the list of Thothmes III, in the ‘Israel Inscription’ of Merenptah (see Ency. Bibl. 1242), and as Gazri in the Amarna tablets (163 etc.), situated on the S.W. border of Ephraim (Joshua 16:3), near the Philistine territory (2 Samuel 5:25). It remained Canaanite until conquered by Pharaoh Shishak, who gave it to his daughter, Solomon’s wife (1 Kings 9:16). Solomon rebuilt the city as a frontier fortress against the Philistines (1 Kings 9:15; 1 Kings 9:17). It was an important place during the Maccabaean wars (Gazara, 1Ma 4:15; 1Ma 9:52; 1Ma 14:34; 1Ma 15:28; 1Ma 15:35 etc.). The site, = the mod. Tell el-Jezer, a little S. of the Jaffa-Jerusalem road and 13 m. from Jerusalem, was recovered by Clermont-Ganneau in 1871. Several bilingual inscriptions in Hebr. and Gk. have been found near the Tell containing the words “boundary of Gezer [Hebr.]: of Alkios [Gk.],” supposed to refer to the sabbatic limits and the local governor who thus defined them. See Cl.-Ganneau, Rec. d’arch. Orientale iii. §§ 25, 47. The excavations recently conducted on the site have thrown much light on the past history of Canaan; seven strata of successive occupations have been ascertained; the area of the Canaanite temple or high place, much pottery, and, in the Israelite stratum, the bones of infants built into the foundations of houses (cf. 1 Kings 16:34), and what has been identified as Solomon’s work of fortification, are among the most important discoveries; see Palest. Explor. Fund Qtly. Statements for 1903, and Driver, Schweich Lectures, pp. 46–59.

in Gezer among them] Joshua 16:10 b reads ‘in the midst of Ephraim unto this day and became subject to forced labour,’ probably representing the original form of J; cf. Jdg 1:28; Jdg 1:30; Jdg 1:33; Jdg 1:35.Like Judah, so also ("they also," referring back to Judges 1:2, Judges 1:3) did the house of Joseph (Ephraim and western Manasseh) renew the hostilities with the Canaanites who were left in their territory after the death of Joshua. The children of Joseph went up against Bethel, and Jehovah was with them, so that they were able to conquer the city. Bethel had indeed been assigned to the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 18:22), but it was situated on the southern boundary of the tribe-land of Ephraim (Joshua 16:2; Joshua 18:13); so that the tribe of Joseph could not tolerate the Canaanites in this border town, if it would defend its own territory against them, and purge it entirely of them. This is a sufficient explanation of the fact that this one conquest is mentioned, and this only, without there being any necessity to seek for the reason, as Bertheau does, in the circumstance that the town of Bethel came into such significant prominence in the later history of Israel, and attained the same importance in many respects in relation to the northern tribes, as that which Jerusalem attained in relation to the southern. For the fact that nothing more is said about the other conquests of the children of Joseph, may be explained simply enough on the supposition that they did not succeed in rooting out the Canaanites from the other fortified towns in their possessions; and therefore there was nothing to record about any further conquests, as the result of their hostilities was merely this, that they did not drive the Canaanites out of the towns named in Judges 1:27, Judges 1:29, but simply made them tributary. יתירוּ, they had it explored, or spied out. תּוּר is construed with בּ here, because the spying laid hold, as it were, of its object. Bethel, formerly Luz, now Beitin: see at Genesis 28:19 and Joshua 7:2.
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