Ezra 8:3
Of the sons of Shechaniah, of the sons of Pharosh; Zechariah: and with him were reckoned by genealogy of the males an hundred and fifty.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
Ezra 8:3. By genealogy of the males — Though the males only be expressed, yet doubtless they carried the women along with them, as they did the little ones, Ezra 8:21.

8:1-20 Ezra assembles the outcasts of Israel, and the dispersed of Judah. God raised up the spirits of a small remnant to accompany him. What a pity that good men should omit a good work, for want of being spoken to!Punctuate as follows:

Ezra 8:2. ... of the sons of David, Hattush of the sons of Shechaniah.

Ezra 8:3. Of the sons of Pharosh, Zechariah ....

Hattush, the descendant of David, was the grandson of Shechaniah (see marginal reference).

Most of these names Ezra 8:2-14 occur also as those of heads of families in the list of the Jews who returned with Zerubbabel Ezra 2:3-15. The Septuagint and Syriac versions supply omissions in Ezra 8:5, Ezra 8:10.

CHAPTER 8

Ezr 8:1-14. Ezra's Companions from Babylon.

1. this is the genealogy of them that went up with me from Babylon—The number given here amounts to 1754. But this is the register of adult males only, and as there were women and children also (Ezr 8:21), the whole caravan may be considered as comprising between six thousand and seven thousand.

Of the sons of Pharosh, i.e. one of the sons of Pharosh; whereby he is differenced from the other Shechaniah, Ezra 8:5.

By genealogy of the males: though the males only be expressed here, and in the succeeding verses, yet it is more than probable they carried the women along with them, as they did carry little ones as it is expressed here, Ezra 8:21.

Of the sons of Shechaniah, of the sons of Pharosh,.... Who is so described, to distinguish him from another Shechaniah, Ezra 8:5,

Zechariah: and with him were reckoned by genealogy, of the males an hundred and fifty; males only were reckoned, not women and children; though that there were such that went up is clear from Ezra 8:21, from hence to the end of Ezra 8:14 an account is given of the number of the males that went up with Ezra, who were chiefly, if not altogether, sons of those that went up with Zerubbabel; such of them as were left there behind, and now returned, at least a great number of them, see Ezra 2:1, it is particularly remarked of the sons of Adonikam, Ezra 8:13, that they were the last of them; not that they were the last that came in to go with Ezra, or were backward and dilatory, but the last with respect to the first of his sons that were gone before, and seem with them to be the whole of his family; the number of all that went up under their respective heads amounts to 1496.

Of the sons of Shechaniah, of the sons of Pharosh; Zechariah: and with him were reckoned by genealogy of the males an hundred and fifty.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
3. This verse should begin with ‘of the sons of Parosh’ (see note on Ezra 8:2).

‘by genealogy of the males’. The present list differs in this respect from that recorded in chap. 2. There the total numbers are given; here the number of the males only.

3–14. The register of the laity or “the men of the people of Israel” as in Ezra 2:2.

The names of these houses with the exception of Shechaniah (Ezra 8:5) and Shelomith (Ezra 8:10) appear also in chap. 2 and Nehemiah 7. But it is most probable that the text has in the case of both these exceptions suffered (see notes on the verses), and that the houses of Zattu and Bani (Ezra 2:8; Ezra 2:10) are represented by Shechaniah and Shelomith.

Twelve households are represented by their chiefs and the number of their males given. The number ‘twelve’ was perhaps designedly taken to symbolize the united Israel.

The parallel list in 1 Esdras does not contain many variations. The following table places them side by side.

Ezra

  

  1Es 8:30 ff.

  

Of the sons of Parosh, Zechariah,

  150

  

  

Of the sons of Pahath-Moab, Eliehoenai, the son of Zerahiah,

  200

  

  

Of the sons of Shechaniah, the son of Jahaziel,

  300

  Of the sons of Zathoe, Sechenias, the son of Jezelus,

  300

Of the sons of Adin, Ebed, the son of Jonathan,

  50

  Of the sons of Adin, Obeth, the son of Jonathan,

  250

Of the sons of Elam, Jeshaiah the son of Athalian,

  70

  Of the sons of Elam, Josias, the son of Gotholias,

  70

Of the sons of Shephatiah, Zebadiah, the son of Michael,

  80

  Of the sons of Saphatias, Zaraias, son of Michael,

  70

Of the sons of Joab, Obadiah, the son of Jehiel,

  218

  Of the sons of Joab, Abadias, the son of Jezelus,

  212

Of the sons of Shelomith, the son of Josiphiah,

  160

  Of the sons of Banid, Assalimoth, the son of Josaphias,

  160

Of the sons of Bebai, Zechariah, the son of Bebai,

  28

  Of the sons of Astath, Johannes, the son of Acatan,

  110

Of the sons of Azgad, Jonathan, the son of Hakkatan,

  110

  

  

Of the sons of Adonikam, Eliphelet, Jeuel, Shemaiah,

  60

  Of the sons of Adonicam the last, … Eliphalet, Jeuel and Samaias,

  70

Of the sons of Bigvai, Uthai and Zabbud,

  70

  Of the sons of Bago, Uthi, the son of Istalcurus,

  70

The total numbers given in the Hebrew text are 1496, in 1 Esdr. 1690.

Verse 3. - Of the sons of Shechaniah. This clause should be attached to the preceding verse, since it refers to Hattush, who was Shechaniah's grandson; and ver. 3 should begin with the words, "Of the sons of Pharosh, Zechariah." Ezra 8:3Twelve lay houses are named both in the present text and in 1 Esdr. 8:30-40. In ten cases the names of the races, which are uniformly introduced with מבּני, are identical in both texts, viz., Parosh, Pahath-Moab, Adin, Elam, Shephatiah, Joab, Bebai, Azgad, Adonikam, and Bigvai. On the other hand, it appears surprising, 1st, that in the first house mentioned, before the name זכריה, besides "of the sons of Parosh," we have also שׁכניה מבּני (Ezra 8:3), while before all the other names we find only "of the sons of" one individual; 2ndly, that in Ezra 8:5, after שׁכניה בּני, instead of a name of the head of a house, only Ben Jahaziel follows; 3rdly, that in Ezra 8:10 also, after שׁלומית וּמבּני, we have merely Ben Josiphiah, the names themselves being apparently omitted in these two last cases. This conjecture is corroborated by a comparison with the lxx and 1 Esdr. 8, which shows, moreover, that it is not the personal name of the head of the house, but the name of the race, which has been lost. For מבני שׁכניה בן יחזיאל, Ezra 8:5, we find in the lxx ἀπὸ τῶν υἱῶν Ζαθόης Ζεχενίας υἱὸς Ἀζιήλ, and in 1 Esdr. 8:32, ἐκ τῶν υἱῶν Ζαθόης Σεχενίας Ἰεζήλου; and for ומבני שׁלומית בן יוספיה, Ezra 8:10, in the lxx καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν υἱῶν Βαανί Σελιμοὺθ υἱὸς Ἰωσεφία, and in 1 Esdr. 8:36, ἐκ τῶν υἱῶν Βανίας Σαλιμὼθ Ἰωσαφίου. In Ζαθόης and Βαανί (Βανίας) we recognise זתּוּא and בּני of Ezra 2:8 and Ezra 2:10. Hence the text of Ezra 8:5 needs emendation, and should run שׁכניה זתּוּא מבּני, and that of Ezra 8:10, שׁלומית בני וּמבּני. It is more difficult to decide concerning שׁכניה מבּני of Ezra 8:3, though undoubtedly we have here too a corruption of the text. For, first, there is no other instance in the whole list of the sons of two men being cited before the proper name of the house; and then, too, the absence of the ו copulative before מבּני פ is opposed to the notion that the house of Zechariah was formed by a union of the sons of Shecaniah and Parosh, since in this case the and could not be omitted. It is true that we have in the lxx ἀπὸ υἱῶν Σαχανία καὶ ἀπὸ υἱῶν Φόρος; but in this case the καὶ is certainly derived from the translator, who was thus seeking to make sense of the words. In 1 Esdr. 8 we read Δαττοὺς τοῦ Σεχευίου; and Δαττοὺς corresponding with חטּוּשׁ, the words בני שׁכניה (or בן) are taken into the preceding verse. This treatment of the words Bertheau considers correct, because Hattush in 1 Chronicles 3:22 is reckoned among the descendants of Shecaniah. This conjecture is, however, a very doubtful one. For, first, in 1 Chronicles 3:22 Hattush is said to be of the sons of Shemaiah, and Shemaiah of the sons of Shecaniah; then we should as little expect any further statement in the case of Hattush as in the cases of Daniel and Gershom; and further, if he had been thus more precisely designated by naming his father, we should undoubtedly read שׁכניה בּן, not שׁ מבּני, and thus the Masoretic text would at any rate be incorrect; and finally, 1 Esdras, where it differs from the lxx, is, generally speaking, no critical authority upon which to base safe conclusions. Under these circumstances, we must give up the hope of restoring the original text, and explaining the words מבני שׁבניה. התיחשׂ עמּו, "and with Zechariah, his genealogy of 150 males," i.e., with him his race, consisting of 150 males, registered in the genealogy of the race. In the case of the names which follow, the number only is given after the briefer expression עמּו.

A review, then, of the twelve races, according to the restoration of the original text in Ezra 8:5 and Ezra 8:10, presents us with names already occurring in the list of the races who came from Babylon with Zerubbabel, Ezra 2:3-15, with the exception of the sons of Joab, Ezra 8:9, who are wanting in Ezra 2, where, on the other hand, several other races are enumerated. Bertheau seeks to identify the sons of Joab, Ezra 8:9, with the sons of Joab who in Ezra 2:6 are reckoned with the sons of Pahath-Moab, and to explain their special enumeration in the present list, by the conjecture that the one house subsequently separated into the two houses of Pahath-Moab and Joab, This is, indeed, possible; but it is quite a probable that only one portion or branch of the sons (descendants) of Joab was combined with the race of the sons of Pahath-Moab, and that the rest of the bne Joab formed a separate house, no family of which returned with Zerubbabel. The occurrence of the other races in both lists is to be explained by the circumstance that portions of them returned with Zerubbabel, and that the rest did not follow till Ezra's departure.

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