Daniel 11:13
For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13) Shall return.—In this and the next two verses the causes are mentioned to which the failure of the southern king was due. He returns some years after his defeat to take revenge, and brings with him a larger army than he had on the previous occasion.

Much richesi.e., all that is necessary for the maintenance of a large army; literally, anything acquired. This has been explained of the invasion of Egypt by Antiochus and Philip of Macedon, some thirteen or fourteen years after the battle of Raphia, when Ptolemy Epiphanes, a mere child, had succeeded his father, Philopator. On the hypothesis that these chapters refer to this period, it is surprising that there should be no allusion to the religious persecutions to which the Jews in Egypt had been subjected by Ptolemy Philopator, who, after his victory at Raphia, attempted to enter the Holy Place, as is mentioned in the Third Book of Maccabees. It should be remembered that the Jews suffered considerably from both parties during the whole of this period; but though the prophecy is supposed to have been written for their comfort and encouragement at this very juncture, yet not a word is said which bears allusion to them.

Daniel 11:13. For the king of the north shall return — It is here foretold that the war should be renewed between the two kings of the north and south, and that it should be begun by the former, who should attempt another invasion of Egypt. This came to pass accordingly, about fourteen years after. For Antiochus, having taken and slain the rebel Achæus, and put an end to the Asiatic war in which he had been engaged, and during which, by his martial exploits against the Medes, Parthians, and others, he had acquired a distinguished reputation throughout Asia and Europe; and having also reduced and settled the eastern parts in their obedience, he found himself at leisure to prosecute any enterprise he might think proper to undertake. And Ptolemy Philopater having died of intemperance and debauchery, and being succeeded by his son Ptolemy Epiphanes, now a child of only four or five years old, he judged it a favourable opportunity for recovering his lost provinces. Taking advantage, therefore, of the infancy of Ptolemy, he returned to invade Egypt, and set forth a multitude greater than the former, engaging Philip, king of Macedon, in his interest, and bringing with him powerful forces from the east; with much riches — With abundant supplies of all necessary provisions for his army; and especially with beasts of burden for removing their baggage, for that is the proper sense of the word רכושׂ, here rendered riches. Polybius informs us, that from the king of Bactria, and from the king of India, he received so many elephants as made up his number one hundred and fifty, besides provisions and riches. Jerome affirms, from ancient authors, that he gathered together an incredible army out of the countries beyond Babylon; and, contrary to the league, he marched with his army, Ptolemy Philopater being dead, against his son, who was then a child.11:1-30 The angel shows Daniel the succession of the Persian and Grecian empires. The kings of Egypt and Syria are noticed: Judea was between their dominions, and affected by their contests. From ver. 5-30, is generally considered to relate to the events which came to pass during the continuance of these governments; and from ver. 21, to relate to Antiochus Epiphanes, who was a cruel and violent persecutor of the Jews. See what decaying, perishing things worldly pomp and possessions are, and the power by which they are gotten. God, in his providence, sets up one, and pulls down another, as he pleases. This world is full of wars and fightings, which come from men's lusts. All changes and revolutions of states and kingdoms, and every event, are plainly and perfectly foreseen by God. No word of God shall fall to the ground; but what he has designed, what he has declared, shall infallibly come to pass. While the potsherds of the earth strive with each other, they prevail and are prevailed against, deceive and are deceived; but those who know God will trust in him, and he will enable them to stand their ground, bear their cross, and maintain their conflict.For the king of the north shall return - That is, he shall come again into the regions of Coelo-Syria and Palestine, to recover them if possible from the power of the Egyptian king.

And shall set forth a multitude greater than the former - Than he had in the former war when he was defeated. The fact was, that Antiochus, in this expedition, brought with him the forces with which he had successfully invaded the East, and the army had been raised for that purpose, and was much larger than that with which he had formerly attacked Ptolemy. See Prideaux, iii.-163-165.

And shall certainly come after certain years with a great army - This occurred 203 b.c., fourteen years after the former war. - Prideaux, iii.19.

With much riches - Obtained in his conquests in Parthia and other portions of the East. See Prideaux, "ut supra." The "history" of Antiochus corresponds precisely with the statement here.

13. return—renew the war.

after certain years—fourteen years after his defeat at Raphia. Antiochus, after successful campaigns against Persia and India, made war with Ptolemy Epiphanes, son of Philopater, a mere child.

Antiochus the Great shall raise great forces, even from Babylon and Media; Philopater being dead, and Ptolemy Epiphanes his son yet a child, under whom Agathocles, a dissolute, proud person, hated of all, governed Egypt as his viceroy. For the king of the north shall return,.... As Antiochus king of Syria did, upon the death of Ptolemy Philopator, who was succeeded by his son Ptolemy Epiphanes, a minor of five years of age: Antiochus took the advantage of this minority, and entered into a league with Philip king of Macedon, to divide the kingdom of Egypt between them; and marched an army into Coelesyria and Palestine, and made himself master of those countries:

and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former; bring a larger army into the field than he had done before, which Jerom says he brought out of the upper parts of Babylon; some say it consisted of three hundred thousand footmen, besides horsemen and elephants:

and shall certainly come (after certain years) with a great army, and with much riches; with all manner of provisions to supply his numerous army, and all proper accommodations for it; money to pay his soldiers, and beasts of burden to carry their baggage from place to place: this was about fourteen years after the former battle, as Dr. Prideaux (p) observes; and, according to Bishop Usher's annals, thirteen years.

(p) Connexion, par. 2. B. 2. p. 140.

For the king of the north {b} shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.

(b) After the death of Ptolemais Philopater, who left Ptolemais Epiphanes as his heir.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
13. Twelve years after the battle of Raphia, in 205, Ptolemy Philopator died, leaving a son aged 4 years, who succeeded him on the throne as Ptolemy V. (Epiphanes). Antiochus had meanwhile been gaining the series of successes in Persia, Bactria, Asia Minor, and even in India, which earned him the epithet of the ‘Great.’ Returning from the East, in the same year in which Philopator died, he concluded an alliance with Philip, king of Macedon, for a joint attack upon the infant king of Egypt, and partition of his foreign possessions between them (Polyb. xv. 20; cf. Jer. ad loc.). Details of the war are not known, the part of Polybius’ history which described it being lost. We only learn from Justin (xxxi. 1) that he invaded Phœnicia and Syria; and from Polybius (xvi. 18, 40) that he captured Gaza, after a stout resistance.

shall return, &c.] shall again raise a multitude, greater than the former, with allusion to the forces by which he achieved his successes in Persia and the East. Jerome (quoting probably from Porphyry) speaks of the immense army which he brought back with him from the East.

and he shall come on at the end of the times, (even of) years] after 12 years, at the end of his conquests in Persia, Bactria, &c.

with much substance] the allusion is to the baggage, implements of war, &c., belonging to a well-appointed army. The word used (רכוש) denotes especially such possessions as stores, furniture, implements, &c.: see 1 Chronicles 27:31, 2 Chronicles 20:25 (‘riches’—of an invading army), 2 Chronicles 21:14 (R.V.), 17; Ezra 1:4; Ezra 1:6 (‘goods’).Verse 13. - For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches. The LXX. does not differ essentially from this, only πόλεως comes in unnecessarily by a blunder - the less to be understood, as there seems no word which can have occasioned the misreading, unless it is simply a blunder of hearing for πολλήν; but against this is the fact that Paulus Tellensis has medeenatha. There is also the limitation of the period after which the king of the north will return to "one year" (καιροῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ), "a period of a year." Theodotion is closer to the Massoretic . The Peshitta is closer than either of the Greek versions, as neither of them attempts to give, "coming he shall come," which it does. The Vulgate is like Theodotion. The reference here is to the second expedition against Egypt, undertaken by Antiochus after the death of Philopator. After his victory at Raphia, Ptolemy resumed his life of self-indulgence. Antiochus endeavoured to build up his empire by curbing the Parthians; then, after an interval of fourteen years, he once more invaded the territories of the Egyptian monarch. This second invasion resulted in Antiochus gaining possession of all Palestine. Daniel now read the writing (Daniel 5:25), and gave its interpretation (Daniel 5:26-28). The writing bears the mysterious character of the oracle. פּרס, תּקל, מנא (Daniel 5:28) are partic. Piel, and the forms תּקל and פּרס, instead of תּקיל and פּריס, are chosen on account of their symphony with מנא. פּרסין is generally regarded as partic. plur., but that would be פּרסין; it much rather appears to be a noun form, and plur. of פּרס equals Hebr. פּרס (cf. פּרסיהן, Zechariah 11:16), in the sense of broken pieces, fragments, for פרס signifies to divide, to break in pieces, not only in the Hebr. (cf. Leviticus 11:4; Isaiah 58:7; Psalm 69:32), but also in the Chald., 2 Kings 4:39 (Targ.), although in the Targg. The meaning to spread out prevails. In all the three words there lies a double sense, which is brought out in the interpretation. מנא, for the sake of the impression, or perhaps only of the parallelism, is twice given, so as to maintain two members of the verse, each of two words. In the numbering lies the determination and the completion, or the conclusion of a manner, a space of time. Daniel accordingly interprets מנא thus: God has numbered (מנה for מנא, perf. act.) thy kingdom, i.e., its duration or its days, והשׁלמהּ, and has finished it, i.e., its duration is so counted out that it is full, that it now comes to an end. In תּקל there lies the double sense that the word תּקל, to weigh, accords with the Niphal of קלל, to be light, to be found light (cf. תּקל, Genesis 16:4). The interpretation presents this double meaning: Thou art weighed in the balances (תּקלתּא) and art found too light (like the תּקל). חסּיר, wanting in necessary weight, i.e., deficient in moral worth. תּקלתּא, a perf. formed from the partic. Piel; cf. Winer, 13, 2. As to the figure of the balance, cf. Job 31:6; Psalm 62:10 (9).

For פּרסין (Daniel 5:25) Daniel uses in the interpretation the sing. פּרס, which, after the analogy of תּקל, may be regarded as partic. Piel, and he interprets it accordingly, so that he brings out, along with the meaning lying in the word, also the allusion to פּרס, Persian: thy kingdom is divided, or broken into pieces, and given to the Medes and Persians. The meaning is not that the kingdom was to be divided into two equal parts, and the one part given to the Medes and the other to the Persians; but פרס is to divide into pieces, to destroy, to dissolve the kingdom. This shall be effected by the Medes and Persians, and was so brought about when the Persian Cyrus with the united power of the Medes and Persians destroyed Babylon, and thus put an end to the Chaldean kingdom, whereby the kingdom was transferred first to the Median Darius (Daniel 6:1 [Daniel 5:31]), and after him to the Persian Cyrus. In the naming of the Median before the Persian there lies, as already remarked in the Introduction, a notable proof of the genuineness of this narrative, and with it of the whole book; for the hegemony of the Medes was of a very short duration, and after its overthrow by the Persians the form of expression used is always "Persians and Medes," as is found in the book of Esther.

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