And it came to pass in those days, that she was sick, and died: whom when they had washed, they laid her in an upper chamber.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)They laid her in an upper chamber.—This implies some little delay in the usual rapidity of Eastern funerals. As Lydda was only nine miles from Joppa, the report of Æneas’s recovery might well have travelled from the one city to the other, and led to the hope that the power which St. Peter had thus put forth might extend even to the farther work of raising from the dead.
In an upper chamber - See the notes on Acts 1:13. There is no evidence that they expected that Peter would raise her up to life.
in an—rather, "the"
upper chamber—(compare 1Ki 17:19).1 Corinthians 15:29.
that she was sick and died; fell ill with some disorder, and died of it:
whom, when they had washed; as was the manner of the Jews; and this they did, even though it was on a sabbath day: for so their canon runs (f),
"they do all the necessaries for the dead (on the sabbath), they anoint him, "and they wash him";''
yet that of Maimonides deserves some notice (g);
"it is forbidden to anoint part of the body, as the whole body; but if it is to remove filth, it is lawful; and so it is forbidden to wash part of the body with hot water, but with cold water they may wash his face, his hands, and his feet, but not the whole body.''
This custom still continues, and their usual method is to wash the body with hot water, in which they put dried roses and camomile flowers: likewise, they take an egg, and beat it up in wine, and therewith anoint the head; and this washing and anointing are done by some at the house before the corpse is carried out (as here); but in some places, especially where there is a large number of Jews, all this is done in the burying places; where they have a little house, whither they carry the corpse, and put it on a table, and there wash it; and after washing, put, it into a coffin, and inter it (h): and this has been the custom of other nations, if not of all nations: the custom with the Turks is this (i); the body being laid upon a board, and covered with a linen cloth, one of the ecclesiastical elders washes it with hot water and soap, another being present to hand the water; but they do not suffer others to look on: the body is thrice washed; and the third time they mingle camphire with it; and being washed, it is put into a coffin. And Ludolphus (k) reports of the Abyssines, that their bodies being well washed and perfumed, they wrap them up in garments, and then are put upon a bier, and buried. And this was the practice both of the ancient Grecians and Romans, that as soon as ever anyone was dead, the body was immediately washed and anointed. Thus Creon is said to fetch Jocaste to wash her dead son; and Antigone requests of Creon, that she might wash her brother (l). It has been the custom of some countries to wash their dead bodies in rivers: and some people, in the northern parts, have chose, for this reason, to have their burying places near the banks of rivers, that their dead bodies might be washed in running water: and the Indians, which live at a distance from the river Ganges, will go fifteen or twenty days journey thither, to wash their corpse in it, though then putrefied, and then burn them; yea, they take their sick alive when they think they will die, and put them up to their middle in rivers, that they may die in pure and clear water; and they enjoin a very severe penance on those who omit to bring such as are near death, to a river to be washed (m):
they laid her in an upper chamber. The Ethiopic version reads quite the reverse; "they put her in the lower part of the house": which is not likely. Dr. Lightfoot conjectures that this upper chamber might be the common meeting place of the saints; and that they put her here, that if Peter should work a miracle all might be spectators of it; and certain it is, that the Jewish doctors used to meet in upper rooms, and confer together; See Gill on Mark 2:4, and such there were in Lydda; See Gill on Acts 1:13 and such there were in Lydda; Acts 9:32.
(f) Misn. Sabbat, c. 23. sect. 5. (g) Hilch. Ebel, c. 5. sect. 4. (h) Buxtorf. Synagog. Jud. c. 49. p. 699, 700. Leo Modena's History of the Rites, &c. of the Jews, par. 5. c. 8. (i) Bobovius de Visitat. Aegrot. p. 18. Georgievitz de Turc. Moribus, p. 36. (k) Hist. Ethiop. l. 3. c. 6. (l) Vid. Kirchmannum de Funeribus Roman. l. 1. c. 7. (m) Sperling de Baptismo Ethnicorum, c. 4. p. 26, 27.And it came to pass in those days, that she was sick, and died: whom when they had washed, they laid her in an upper chamber.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)Acts 9:37-38. Concerning the general ancient custom of washing the dead, see Dougtaei Anal. II. p. 77 ff., and Wetstein; also Hermann, Privatalterth. § 39. 5.
ἐν ὑπερῴῳ] The article (which Lachmann and Bornemann have, after A C E) was not necessary, as it was well known that there was only one upper room (Acts 1:13) in the house, and thus no mistake could occur. Nor is anything known as to its having usually served as the chamber for the dead; perhaps the room for privacy and prayer was chosen in this particular instance, because they from the very first thought to obtain the presence and agency of Peter.
μὴ ὀκνήσῃς κ.τ.λ.] Comp. Numbers 22:16. “Fides non tollit civilitatem verborum,” Bengel. On the classical ὀκνεῖν (only here in the N. T.), see Ruhnk. ad Tim. p. 190; Jacobs, ad Anthol. III. p. 894. Thou mayest not hesitate to come to us. On διελθ., comp. Luke 2:15.Acts 9:37. ἐγέν. δὲ: on the frequency of the formula in Luke see above p. 124, and Plummer, St. Luke, p. 45, on the use of ἐγένετο.—ἀσθενήσασαν: aorist, marking the time when she fell sick (Weiss).—λούσαντες: after the manner of the Jews as well as of the Greeks, cf. instances in Wetstein and Hamburger, Real-Encyclopädie des Judentums, i., 2, 162, “Beerdigung” Outside Jerusalem three days might elapse between the death and burial, but in Jerusalem no corpse lay over night, see Hamburger, u. s., p. 161; in the case of Ananias and Sapphira we may note the accuracy of this distinction.—ἔθηκαν: burial did not take place until the danger of an apparent death was considered past; in uncertain cases a delay as above might be allowed, or for other special reasons, and children were forbidden to hasten the burial of their parents, Hamburger, u. s., p. 161; and further for burial and mourning customs, Edersheim, Jewish Social Life, p. 168, and History of the Jewish Nation, p. 311.—ἐν ὑπερῴῳ: the body was usually laid in an upper chamber when burial was delayed; see Hackett’s note and also on Acts 9:39, and Alford on the article.37. that she was [fell] sick, and died] The proceedings which followed on her death are evidence of its reality. The probable reason for deferring the burial was the knowledge that Peter was close at hand, and the hope of the disciples that the power of Jesus might be exercised through him for the restoration to life of so eminent a disciple as Dorcas.Verse 37. - Fell sick for was sick, A.V.; and when they had washed her for whom when they had washed, A.V. For the phrase in those days, comp. Acts 6:1. The days here meant are those while Peter was in those parts. An upper chamber (ὑπερώον), as in Acts 1:13. The upper chamber was much more private and quiet than a room on the ground floor (see 2 Kings 4:10, 11).
See on Acts 1:13.
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