1 Samuel 9:24
And the cook took up the shoulder, and that which was on it, and set it before Saul. And Samuel said, Behold that which is left! set it before you, and eat: for to this time has it been kept for you since I said, I have invited the people. So Saul did eat with Samuel that day.
Jump to: BarnesBensonBICambridgeClarkeDarbyEllicottExpositor'sExp DctGaebeleinGSBGillGrayHaydockHastingsHomileticsJFBKDKJTLangeMacLarenMHCMHCWParkerPoolePulpitSermonSCOTTBWESTSK
EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(24) And Samuel said.—There is an error here in the English translation which requires correction. Although the matter is not one of great moment, yet it is important and deeply interesting to notice the little details that the inspired historian has thought it right to preserve in connection with this whole transaction. There was, no doubt, a very early and authentic tradition of the circumstance of this anointing of the first king, which was, of course, often rehearsed in the sacred assemblies of Israel. “Samuel’s name is not given in the Hebrew, and though inserted by the LXX. and Vulg., it is so only by a manifest error. The Syriac and Chaldee, like the Hebrew, make the cook the speaker. The right translation is, And the cook lifted up the shoulder, with that which was upon it, and set it before Saul, and said, Behold that which hath been reserved is set (a participle, and not the imperative) before thee; eat, for it hath been kept for thee unto the appointed time, of which he (i.e., Samuel) spake, saying, I have invited the people. The word translated in the Authorised Version, “since I said,” is one which means saying, and nothing else; and as what goes before contains no verb to which saying can refer, it is plain that there is an ellipse. But if the cook be the speaker, the meaning is plain, as follows:—When, on the previous day, the revelation was made to Samuel that Israel’s future king would present himself on the morrow, the prophet at once made preparations to receive him with due solemnity, and for this purpose arranged a sacrifice, and invited thirty of the chief citizens of Ramah to assemble at the high place, and sit at the banquet with him. And then it was, when telling the cook of his invitation, that he gave orders that the portion of honour should be carefully reserved, to be set at the fitting time before the stranger. The chat of the cook is entirely after the manner of ancient times, and would show Saul how completely his coming had been foreseen and provided for.”—Dean Payne Smith, in Pulpit Comm.

9:18-27 Samuel, that good prophet, was so far from envying Saul, or bearing him any ill-will, that he was the first and most forward to do him honour. Both that evening and early the next morning, Samuel communed with Saul upon the flat roof of the house. We may suppose Samuel now convinced Saul that he was the person God had fixed upon for the government, and of his own willingness to resign. How different are the purposes of the Lord for us, from our intentions for ourselves! Perhaps Saul was the only one who ever went out to seek asses, and literally found a kingdom; but many have set out and moved their dwellings to seek riches and pleasures, who have been guided to places where they found salvation for their souls. Thus they have met with those who addressed them as if aware of the secrets of their lives and hearts, and have been led seriously to regard the word of the Lord. If this has been our case, though our worldly plans have not prospered, let us not care for that; the Lord has given us, or has prepared us for, what is far better.The shoulder and its appurtenances - would give the sense accurately. The right shoulder was the priest's portion in the Levitical sacrifices. Probably it was Samuel's own portion in this case, and he gave it to Saul as a mark of the highest honor. 24. the cook took up the shoulder … and set it before Saul. And Samuel said, Behold that which is left; set it before thee, and eat—that is, reserved (see on [239]Ge 18:7; [240]Ge 43:34). This was, most probably, the right shoulder; which, as the perquisite of the sacrifice, belonged to Samuel, and which he had set aside for his expected guest. In the sculptures of the Egyptian shambles, also, the first joint taken off was always the right shoulder for the priest. The meaning of those distinguished attentions must have been understood by the other guests. The shoulder, to wit, the left shoulder, for the right shoulder was the priest’s, Leviticus 7:32,33. This he gives him, either, first, As the best and noblest part of the remainders of the sacrifice; the best parts being usually given by the master of the feast to such guests as were most honourable, or best beloved, as Genesis 43:34. Or, secondly, As a secret symbol or sign of that burden which was to be laid upon Saul, and of that strength which was necessary for the bearing of it; the shoulder being both the seat of burdens, and the subject of strength.

That which was upon it; something which the cook by Samuel’s order was to put upon it when it was drest, either for ornament, or in the nature of a sauce.

That which is left, to wit, left of the sacrifice; but so all or most of the rest of their provisions were left: or rather, reserved, or laid by, by my order, for thy eating, when the rest of the meat was sent up and disposed of as the cook pleased.

Unto this time; till thou shouldst come hither, and sit down here; whereby thou mayst know that thy coming hither was not unknown to me, and was designed by God for a higher purpose.

Since I said, to wit, to the cook, who was before mentioned, as the person to whose care this was committed.

I have invited the people, i.e. I have invited or designed some persons, for whom I reserve this part. For since the word people is not here taken properly, but for some particular persons of the people, which were not in all above thirty, 1 Samuel 9:22, why may not the same word be understood of two or three persons whom Samuel specially invited, to wit, Saul and his servant? So some learned men understand this word people of three men, 2 Kings 18:36. And they further note, that in the Arabic, and Ethiopic, and Persian languages, (all which are near akin, both to themselves and to the Hebrew, and do ofttimes communicate their signification each to other,) the word that signifies people, is oft used for some few particular persons. Or if the word people be meant of the chief of the people, mentioned above, 1 Samuel 9:22, then Samuel was the principal author of this sacrifice and feast, and it was not a sacrifice of the people, as it is rendered, 1 Samuel 9:12, but a sacrifice and feast made by Samuel for the people, as it should be rendered there; and the sense is, When I first spake or sent to the cook, that I had invited the people, first to join with me in my sacrifice, and then to partake with me of the feast, I then bade him reserve this part for thy use. And the cook took up the shoulder, and that which was upon it,.... Meaning either, as some think, some sauce that was poured on it, or garnish about it; or the thigh, as the Targum, and so Jarchi, Kimchi, and others; or rather the breast, as a more ancient Jew (o); since this joined to the shoulder before separated, and in sacrifices went along with it; though most think this was the left shoulder and breast, because the right shoulder and breast of the peace offerings were given to the priest, to be eaten by him and his sons, Leviticus 7:34 but in those unsettled times, with respect to sacrifices, many things were dispensed with; and Samuel, though a Levite, might officiate as a priest, and so the right shoulder and breast belonged to him as such; and this best accounts for his having the disposal of it; and upon this extraordinary occasion, Saul, though not the son of a priest, might be admitted to eat of it, it being the choicest part, and fit to be set before one designed to be king; and to show that he was to live in friendship with the priests of the Lord, and to take care of and protect the ministerial function:

and set it before Saul; by the direction of Samuel no doubt, as a token of honour and respect unto him; it being usual in other countries to commend the best dishes, or best pieces of flesh, to the more excellent and worthy persons at table (p); and this was, as Josephus (q) calls it, a royal portion: the arm or shoulder, especially the right arm, being a symbol of strength, may denote that strength which was necessary for him to bear the burden of government, to protect his people, and fight in defence of them; and the breast being the seat of wisdom and prudence, of affection and love, may signify how necessary such qualities were for kingly government, to know how to go in and out before the people, and be heartily concerned for their good: and Samuel said:

behold that which is left; not by the guests, and what they could not eat; for till Samuel came they did not begin to eat; and as for this part, it was but just brought in, and was never set before the guests, but it was left by Samuel in the hands of the cook, and reserved for the use of Saul:

set it before thee, and eat; it was already set before him, but he would have him keep it by him, and eat of it, and make his meal of it, it being the best dish at the table:

for unto this time hath it been kept for thee; by which he gave him to understand that he knew of his coming before hand, and therefore had made this provision for him; and which might serve to persuade him of the truth and certainty of what he had hinted to him:

since I said I have invited the people; not the thirty persons before mentioned, for it does not appear that they were invited by Samuel, but rather by those who brought the peace offerings, who had a right to invite any of their friends they thought fit; but by "the people" are meant Saul and his servant; for in the eastern languages two or three persons, and even one, are called a people; and this Samuel had said to his cook, when he bid him set by the shoulder, and what was on it, because he had invited some, for whom he had designed it:

so Saul did eat with Samuel that day: they dined together.

(o) R. Eliezer in T. Bab. Avodah Zara, fol. 25. 1.((p) Vid. Diodor. Sicul. l. 5. p. 306. (q) Ut supra. (Antiqu. l. 6. c. 4. sect. 1.)

And the cook took up the shoulder, and that which was {n} upon it, and set it before Saul. And Samuel said, Behold that which is left! set it before thee, and eat: for unto this time hath it been kept for thee since I said, I {o} have invited the people. So Saul did eat with Samuel that day.

(n) That is, the shoulder with the breast, which the priest had for his family in all peace offerings, Le 10:14

(o) That both by the assembling of the people, and by the meat prepared for you, you might understand that I knew of your coming.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
24. And the cook took up the shoulder] Rather, And the cook heaved the leg. The right leg was the priest’s portion (Leviticus 7:32), which Samuel had received. Its dedication to God was indicated by a solemn “heaving” or elevation “before the Lord,” to which allusion is here made. Cp. Numbers 18:26 ff. The reservation of the leg for Saul was a mark of honour. Josephus calls it “a royal portion.”

And [Samuel] said] The E. V. fellows the Sept. and Vulg. in supplying Samuel which is not in the Heb. But the words may possibly be the cook’s. See below.

Behold that which is left, &c.] Or, Behold that which was reserved is set before thee, eat.

for unto this time, &c.] The Heb. text cannot be thus translated and is most likely corrupt, but the sense intended appears to be “For against the set time hath it been kept for thee of which I said, I have invited the people:” or, if the words are the cook’s, “of which Samuel said.” In either case the point is that Saul’s arrival was expected and provision made for it beforehand.

The Sept. renders “Because for a testimony (this is a common mistranslation of the word meaning “set time”) hath it been reserved for thee apart from the rest; cut it up.” The Vulg. “Because it was kept on purpose for thee when I invited the people.”Verse 24. - And Samuel said. Samuel's name is not given in the Hebrew, and though inserted by the Septuagint and Vulgate, it is so only by a manifest error. The Syriac and Chaldee, like the Hebrew, make the cook the speaker. The right translation is, "And the cook lifted up the shoulder with that which was upon it, and set it before Saul, and said, 'Behold, that which hath been reserved is set (a participle, and not the imperative) before thee; eat, for it hath been kept for thee unto the appointed time of which he (i.e. Samuel) spake, saying, I have invited the people. The word translated in the A.V. since I said is one which means saying, and nothing else; and as what goes before contains no verb to which saying can refer, it is plain that there is an ellipse. But if the cook be the speaker, the meaning is plain, as follows: - When on the previous day the revelation was made to Samuel that Israel's future king would present himself on the morrow, the prophet at once made preparations to receive him with due solemnity, and for this purpose arranged a sacrifice, and invited thirty of the chief citizens of Ramah to assemble at the high place, and sit at the banquet with him. And then it was, when telling the cook of his invitation, that he gave orders that the portion of honour should be carefully reserved, to be set at the fittingtime before the stranger. The chat of the cook is entirely after the manner of ancient times, and would show Saul how completely his coming had been foreseen and provided for. The thread of the narrative, which was broken off in 1 Samuel 9:15, is resumed in 1 Samuel 9:18. Saul drew near to Samuel in the gate, and asked him for the seer's house. The expression השּׁער בּתוך is used to define more precisely the general phrase in 1 Samuel 9:14, העיר בּתוך בּאים; and there is no necessity to alter העיר in 1 Samuel 9:14 into השּׁער, as Thenius proposes, for העיר בּתוך כּוא does not mean to go (or be) in the middle of the town, as he imagines, but to go into, or enter, the town; and the entrance to the town was through the gate.
Links
1 Samuel 9:24 Interlinear
1 Samuel 9:24 Parallel Texts


1 Samuel 9:24 NIV
1 Samuel 9:24 NLT
1 Samuel 9:24 ESV
1 Samuel 9:24 NASB
1 Samuel 9:24 KJV

1 Samuel 9:24 Bible Apps
1 Samuel 9:24 Parallel
1 Samuel 9:24 Biblia Paralela
1 Samuel 9:24 Chinese Bible
1 Samuel 9:24 French Bible
1 Samuel 9:24 German Bible

Bible Hub






1 Samuel 9:23
Top of Page
Top of Page