1 Samuel 17:45
Then said David to the Philistine, You come to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to you in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
17:40-47 The security and presumption of fools destroy them. Nothing can excel the humility, faith, and piety which appear in David's words. He expressed his assured expectation of success; he gloried in his mean appearance and arms, that the victory might be ascribed to the Lord alone.A shield - "A javelin," see 1 Samuel 17:6 note. 42-47. the Philistine said … said David to the Philistine—When the two champions met, they generally made each of them a speech, and sometimes recited some verses, filled with allusions and epithets of the most opprobrious kind, hurling contempt and defiance at one another. This kind of abusive dialogue is common among the Arab combatants still. David's speech, however, presents a striking contrast to the usual strain of these invectives. It was full of pious trust, and to God he ascribed all the glory of the triumph he anticipated. In the name of the Lord of hosts, i.e. by a commission from him, with confidence in him, and assurance of his help, and for the vindication of his honour.

Whom thou hast defied, in defying that army and people whereof he is the Lord and Protector. Then said David to the Philistine,.... In answer to the contempt he held him in, and to the threatening words he gave him:

thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield; the word for "shield" is not the same with that so rendered, 1 Samuel 17:41; which his armourbearer carried before him, but with that translated a "target", which was between his shoulders, 1 Samuel 17:6; however, they were all weapons of war, either defensive or offensive:

but I come to thee in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied; the Lord of all hosts, in heaven and in earth in general, and in particular the God of the armies of Israel; which he was at the head of, led on, protected and defended, having a kind and merciful regard unto them, and which this Philistine had defied, reproached, and blasphemed; and now David was come, by a commission from this great Jehovah, to vindicate his honour, and to avenge his people on him: he had asked for a man, and now the Lord of hosts, as the Jews (l) observe, comes forth as a man of war, for the battle was his, as in 1 Samuel 17:47; and David was his messenger, and came in his name, and was the man into whose hands he should be given.

(l) T. Bab. Sotah, fol. 42. 2.

Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
45. a shield] A javelin, as in 1 Samuel 17:6. Clearly an offensive weapon is meant.

in the name of the Lord of hosts] Resting absolutely upon Him Who has revealed Himself as the Covenant-God of Israel, and the Almighty Ruler of heaven and earth, Whom thou defiest when thou defiest the armies of His people. See Note I. p. 235.Verses 45-47. - And with a shield. Really, "a javelin" (see on ver. 6). David of course menitions only his arms of offence. As Goliath had reviled David by his god, so David now expresses his trust in the God of Israel, even Jehovah of hosts, whom the Philistine was dishonouring. This day. I.e. immediately (see 1 Samuel 14:33). Carcases is singular in the Hebrew, but is rightly translated plural, as it is used collectively. That all the earth may know, etc. As we saw on ver. 37, it was David's strong faith in Jehovah, and his conviction that God was fighting for him in proof of his covenant relation to Israel, that not only nerved him to the battle, but made Saul see in him one fit to be Israel's representative in so hazardous a duel. When he was thus equipped with brazen helmet, coat of mail, and sword, David began to walk, but soon found that he could do nothing with these. He therefore said to Saul, "I cannot go in these things, for I have not tried them;" and having taken them off, he took his shepherd's staff in his hand, sought out five smooth stones from the brook-valley, and put them in the shepherd's thing that he had, namely his shepherd's bag. He then took the sling in his hand, and went up to the Philistine. In the exercise of his shepherd's calling he may have become so skilled in the use of the sling, that, like the Benjaminites mentioned in Judges 20:16, he could sling at a hair's-breadth, and not miss.
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