1 Samuel 14:21
Moreover the Hebrews that were with the Philistines before that time, which went up with them into the camp from the country round about, even they also turned to be with the Israelites that were with Saul and Jonathan.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(21) Moreover the Hebrews that were with the Philistines.—These Israelites were, most likely, prisoners who had been compelled to fight against their countrymen, or were levies raised in those parts of the land more immediately under Philistine influence. These, we read, took the first opportunity to go over to Saul. Other Israelites—probably the men of whole villages, who had been compelled, as the result of the late Philistine successes, to desert their homesteads, and seek a precarious living in the hills—joined in the pursuit of the now flying Philistine armies. This is the meaning of the words of the 22nd verse, which speaks of “the men of Israel which had hid themselves in Mount Ephraim.”

14:16-23 The Philistines were, by the power of God, set against one another. The more evident it was that God did all, the more reason Saul had to inquire whether God would give him leave to do any thing. But he was in such haste to fight a fallen enemy, that he would not stay to end his devotions, nor hear what answer God would give him. He that believeth, will not make such haste, nor reckon any business so urgent, as not to allow time to take God with him.Assembled themselves - See marg. Many versions give the sense "shouted," which is far preferable, and only requires a different punctuation. 20-22. Saul and all the people—All the warriors in the garrison at Gibeah, the Israelite deserters in the camp of the Philistines, and the fugitives among the mountains of Ephraim, now all rushed to the pursuit, which was hot and sanguinary. Which went up with them into the camp; either by constraint, as servants; or in policy, to gain their favour and protection. Moreover, the Hebrews that were with the Philistines before that time,.... Who either were their servants and bondsmen they brought along with them, or such in whose cities they dwelt, or had taken as they came along, and forced into their army; or it may be some of them were renegades from the Israelites, deserters, who for safety and subsistence betook themselves to them as the stronger party. The Greek version reads,"the servants that were with the Philistines:"

which went up with them into the camp from the country round about; either willingly or by force; the words, "from the country", are not in the text, wherefore some observe, as Kimchi and Abarbinel, that this respects their being round about the camp, and that they were not within it, but without it, that if possible they might escape fighting against the Israelites:

even they also turned to be with the Israelites that were with Saul and Jonathan; who were now joined; when they saw the dread and confusion in the camp of the Philistines, and them destroying one another, and the Israelites prevailing over them, victorious and pursuing, they took part with them, and assisted them in completing the victory.

Moreover the Hebrews that were with the Philistines before that time, which went up with them into the camp from the country round about, even they also turned to be with the {k} Israelites that were with Saul and Jonathan.

(k) Though before for fear of the Philistines they declared themselves as enemies to their brethren.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
21. the Hebrews that were with the Philistines] Either renegade Israelites who had taken service in the Philistine army, or forced levies from the districts occupied by the Philistines. The name “Hebrews” by which they were known to the Philistines is used to distinguish them from the “Israelites” who had not submitted to their oppressors. The Sept. reads “slaves.” See notes on 1 Samuel 4:6 and 1 Samuel 13:3.Verses 21, 22. - Round about, even. All the versions by a very slight alteration change this into turned, which the A.V. is forced to supply. With this necessary correction the translation is easy: "And the Hebrews who were previously with the Philistines, and had gone up with them into the camp, turned to be with the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan." It appears, therefore, that certain districts of the Israelite territory were so completely in the power of the Philistines that they could compel the men to go with them, not perhaps as soldiers, as is our custom in India, but as drivers and servants. These now turned upon their masters, and were reinforced by the Israelites who had taken refuge in Mount Ephraim. It is noteworthy that these subject "Hebrews" retain the name of contempt given them by their masters. And there arose a terror in the camp upon the field (i.e., in the principal camp) as well as among all the people (of the advanced outpost of the Philistines); the garrison (i.e., the army that was encamped at Michmash), and the spoilers, they also trembled, and the earth quaked, sc., with the noise and tumult of the frightened foe; "and it grew into a trembling of God," i.e., a supernatural terror miraculously infused by God into the Philistines. The subject to the last ותּהי is either חרדה, the alarm in the camp, or all that has been mentioned before, i.e., the alarm with the noise and tumult that sprang out of it.
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