1 Kings 4:6
And Ahishar was over the household: and Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute.
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(6) Over the household,—like the “High Steward” of a modern Court. In 2Kings 18:18 we have the same three officers mentioned (“Eliakim, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph the recorder”).

Adoniram . . . over the tribute (or “levy”),—evidently the head of Solomon’s great public works. (See 1Kings 5:14.) The name is elsewhere given as Adoram. It is to be noticed that in the enumeration of David’s officers in the early part of the reign (2Samuel 8:16-18) no such officer is found; but that in the latter part of his reign the list contains the name of Adoram (2Samuel 20:24). It has been thought that the numbering of the people recorded in 2 Samuel 24 and 1 Chronicles 21, was in preparation for such forced work, and hence was odious to Joab and others. In 1Kings 12:18 we read how the holder of this office, being naturally most unpopular with those who had felt the burden of Solomon’s splendour, was stoned to death in the insurrection against Rehoboam.

To this list the Greek Version adds: “Eliab the son of Shaphat was over the body-guard.” As the office of captain of the body-guard is found in the other lists, and is too important to be omitted, it is possible that this addition corrects some defect in the Hebrew text. Yet it is also possible that no successor to Benaiah was appointed, as experience had shown, in the crushing of the rebellion of Adonijah, how easily the captaincy of the body-guard might become a quasi-independent power.

4:1-19 In the choice of the great officers of Solomon's court, no doubt, his wisdom appeared. Several are the same that were in his father's time. A plan was settled by which no part of the country was exhausted to supply his court, though each sent its portion.Over the household - Comptroller of the household, like the "Steward" of the Persian court. On the importance of this office, see 2 Kings 18:18, and compare Isaiah 22:15-25.

The tribute - The marginal reading, "levy," is preferable. The reference is to the forced laborers whom Solomon employed in his great works (marginal reference).

6. Ahishar was over the household—steward or chamberlain of the palace.

Adoniram—or Adoram (2Sa 20:24; 1Ki 12:18), or Hadoram (2Ch 10:18),

was over the tribute—not the collection of money or goods, but the levy of compulsory laborers (compare 1Ki 5:13, 14).

Over the household; steward of the king’s household.

Over the tribute, to wit, the personal tribute, or the levy of men, as appears by comparing this with 1 Kings 5:13,14, it being very fit that there should be some one person to whom the chief conduct or inspection of that great business was committed. And Abiathar was over the household,.... Steward of the household:

and Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute, over those that collected the tribute, as the Targum, whether from the people of Israel or other nations, or both; this man was in the same post in David's time, 2 Samuel 20:24.

And Ahishar was over the household: and Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute.
6. After the mention of Ahishar, the LXX. (Vat.) adds καὶ Ἐλιὰκ ὁ οἰκόνομος καὶ Ἐλιὰβ υἱὸς Σὰφ ἐπὶ τῆς πατριᾶς.

Adoniram] He is mentioned again 1 Kings 5:14; and the name is found in a contracted form Adoram (2 Samuel 20:24; 1 Kings 12:18) and Hadoram (2 Chronicles 10:18). He was stoned to death by the Israelites to whom Rehoboam sent him, as a collector of tribute, after the revolt of the ten tribes to Jeroboam.

over the tribute] [R.V. levy.] This is the forced labour, in which form the service of tributaries was often exacted. The same word is also used (1 Kings 5:13) of the men who did this forced labour. There it is rendered ‘levy,’ in A. V. It is the German Frohndienst, French corvée.Verse 6. - And Ahishar was over the household [steward and manager of the palace. We meet this office here for the first time, an evidence of the growing size and magnificence of the court (cf. 1 Kings 18:3; 2 Kings 18:18; Isaiah 22:15). That such an officer was needed, the fact mentioned below (on ver. 23) as to the enormous size of the royal household will prove]: and Adoniram [see on 1 Kings 12:18] the son of Abda was over the tribute. [Marg. "levy," i.e., the forced labour (1 Kings 5:13, 14). See on 1 Kings 12:3.] This judicial decision convinced all the people that Solomon was endowed with divine wisdom for the administration of justice.
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