1 Kings 11:39
And I will for this afflict the seed of David, but not for ever.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
1 Kings 11:39. I will for this — For Solomon’s sin, mentioned 1 Kings 11:33; afflict the seed of David — By rending the greatest part of the kingdom from them; but not for ever — A time shall come when the seed of David shall not be thus molested by the kingdom of Israel, but shall flourish again in great power and prosperity; which it did in many illustrious kings of Judah, who reigned in glory when Jeroboam’s family was extirpated. And at last the Messiah came, who united together the broken sticks of Judah and Joseph, and rules over Jews and Gentiles also.

11:26-40 In telling the reason why God rent the kingdom from the house of Solomon, Ahijah warned Jeroboam to take heed of sinning away his preferment. Yet the house of David must be supported; out of it the Messiah would arise. Solomon sought to kill his successor. Had not he taught others, that whatever devices are in men's hearts, the counsel of the Lord shall stand? Yet he himself thinks to defeat that counsel. Jeroboam withdrew into Egypt, and was content to live in exile and obscurity for awhile, being sure of a kingdom at last. Shall not we be content, who have a better kingdom in reserve?But not forever - David had been distinctly promised that God should never fail his seed, whatever their shortcomings Psalm 89:28-37. The fulfillment of these promises was seen, partly in the Providence which maintained David's family in a royal position until Zerubbabel, but mainly in the preservation of his seed to the time fixed for the coming of Christ, and in the birth of Christ - the Eternal King - from one of David's descendants. 29. clad—rather, "wrapped up." The meaning is, "Ahijah, the Shilonite, the prophet, went and took a fit station in the way; and, in order that he might not be known, he wrapped himself up, so as closely to conceal himself, in a new garment, a surtout, which he afterwards tore in twelve pieces." Notwithstanding this privacy, the story, and the prediction connected with it [1Ki 11:30-39], probably reached the king's ears; and Jeroboam became a marked man [1Ki 11:40]. His aspiring ambition, impatient for the death of Solomon, led him to form plots and conspiracies, in consequence of which he was compelled to flee to Egypt. Though chosen of God, he would not wait the course of God's providence, and therefore incurred the penalty of death by his criminal rebellion. The heavy exactions and compulsory labor (1Ki 11:28) which Solomon latterly imposed upon his subjects, when his foreign resources began to fail, had prepared the greater part of the kingdom for a revolt under so popular a demagogue as Jeroboam. For this; for this cause, which I mentioned 1 Kings 11:33.

But not for ever; there shall a time come when the seed of David shall not be thus molested by the kingdom of Israel, but that kingdom shall be destroyed, and the kings of the house of David shall be uppermost, as it was in the days of Asa Hezekiah, and Josiah. And at last the Messiah shall come, who shall unite together the broken sticks of Judah and Joseph, and rule over all the Jews and Gentiles too.

And I will for this afflict the seed of David,.... For the idolatry Solomon had been guilty of, and connived at:

but not for ever; for when the ten tribes were carried captive, the kingdom of Judah flourished under Hezekiah, Josiah, &c. and though the tribe of Judah was carried captive, yet it returned after seventy years captivity, and had rulers over it of the seed of David; and especially to the Messiah has God given the throne of his father David, of whose kingdom there will he no end, Luke 1:32, and Jarchi's note on the text is,

"for in the days of the Messiah the kingdom shall return to it,''

the seed of David; and Abarbinel says, of a truth, at the coming of our Messiah, this prophecy will be fulfilled; but the true Messiah is come already, in whom it is fulfilled; see Kimchi and Abendana, who refer to Ezekiel 37:19.

And I will {r} for this afflict the seed of David, {s} but not for ever.

(r) For this idolatry that Solomon has committed.

(s) For the whole spiritual kingdom was restored in the Messiah.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
39. but not for ever] The glorious promises made to David’s line were not to be withdrawn, and in the Messiah were abundantly fulfilled.

Verse 39. - And I will for this [i.e., the defection just described] afflict the seed of David, but not forever [Heb. all the days. Cf. Psalm 89:28, 33, 36. This limitation, "not forever." would seem to apply to the kingdom, for it was through the loss of their kingdom that the seed of David was afflicted. And if so, it promises, if not a restoration of the kingdom to the house of David, at any rate a renewal or continuance of God's favour. We may perhaps regard the promise as fulfilled in the subsequent history of the kings of Judah. Not only did the kingdom last for nearly 500 years, but the royal house of David maintained its position to the time of Zerubbabel. Nor is it to be overlooked that He "of whose kingdom there shall be no end" (Luke 1:33) was the son of David]. 1 Kings 11:39The condition on which the kingdom of Jeroboam was to last was the same as that on which Solomon had also been promised the continuance of his throne in 1 Kings 3:14; 1 Kings 6:12; 1 Kings 9:4, namely, faithful observance of the commandments of God. The expression, "be king over all that thy soul desireth," is explained in what follows by "all Israel." It is evident from this that Jeroboam had aspired after the throne. On the condition named, the Lord would build him a lasting house, as He had done for David (see at 2 Samuel 7:16). In the case of Jeroboam, however, there is no allusion to a lasting duration of the ממלכה (kingdom) such as had been ensured to David; for the division of the kingdom was not to last for ever, but the seed of David was simply to be chastised. זאת למען, for this, i.e., because of the apostasy already mentioned; "only not all the days," i.e., not for ever. ואענּה is explanatory so far as the sense is concerned: "for I will humble." Jeroboam did not fulfil this condition, and therefore his house was extirpated at the death of his son (1 Kings 15:28.).
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