And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why have you done so? and he also was a very goodly man; and his mother bore him after Absalom.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)1 Kings 1:6-7. His father had not displeased him at any time — This is mentioned as David’s great error, and the occasion of Adonijah’s presumption. In saying, Why hast thou done so? — He had neither restrained him from, nor reproved him for his miscarriages, which David knew was a great sin. He also was a very goodly man — This was a second ground of his confidence, because his great comeliness made him amiable in the people’s eyes. His mother bare him after Absalom — This is mentioned as a third reason why he expected the crown. Absalom being dead, he was next to him in order of birth. See 2 Samuel 3:3-4. He conferred with Joab and with Abiathar — Whom it is likely he knew to be two discontented persons; the former on account of David’s putting Amasa in his place, and the other because he saw Zadok in greater favour than himself. They helped him — Probably, not so much because they thought the right of the crown was his, as with a view to oppose Solomon, and to secure and advance their own interest. It seems that God left them to themselves, to correct them for former miscarriages, with a rod of their own making.
A very goodly man - Here, too, Adonijah resembled Absalom 2 Samuel 14:25. The Jews, like the other nations of antiquity, regarded the physical qualities of rulers as of great importance, and wished their kings to be remarkable for strength, stature, and beauty 1 Samuel 9:2. Adonijah's personal advantages no doubt helped to draw the people to him.
His mother ... - i. e. Haggith bare Adonijah after Maacah bare Absalom 2 Samuel 3:3-4. The words in italics are not in the original; hence, some, by a slight alteration, read "David begat him."
5, 6. Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself—Nothing is said as to the origin or rank of Haggith, so that it is probable she was not distinguished by family descent. Adonijah, though David's fourth son (2Sa 3:4; 1Ch 3:2), was now the oldest alive; and his personal attractions and manners (1Sa 9:2) not only recommended him to the leading men about court, but made him the favorite of his father, who, though seeing him assume an equipage becoming only the heir-presumptive to the throne (2Sa 15:1), said nothing; and his silence was considered by many, as well as by Adonijah, to be equivalent to an expression of consent. The sinking health of the king prompted him to take a decisive step in furtherance of his ambitious designs.His father had not displeased him at any time: this is noted as David’s great error, and the occasion of Adonijah’s presumption. Why hast thou done so? he neither restrained him from, nor reproved him for his miscarriages; which was a great sin against that plain law, Leviticus 19:17, and severely punished in Eli, which David was not ignorant of, except Adonijah’s errors were small, or concealed from David.
He also: this particle relates, either, first, To Absalom here following, who also was a goodly man. Or rather, secondly, To what goes before, to signify that this was a second ground of his confidence, because his great comeliness made him amiable in the people’s eyes, as his father’s indulgence was the first.
After Absalom, i. e. next after Absalom was born of his mother: see 2 Samuel 3:3,4.
in saying, why hast thou done so? never so much as asked a reason of his conduct, so far was he from reproving him for it:
and he also was a very goodly man; of a comely countenance, tall and well proportioned, as his brother Absalom, and which was another thing on which he built his hopes of succeeding in his enterprise; for in those times, as in later times, and other nations, a comely aspect and personable appearance recommended a man to the choice of the people for a supreme magistrate; see Gill on 1 Samuel 9:2;
and his mother bare him after Absalom; not that the same woman bore him as did Absalom; for Absalom's mother was Maachah, this man's Haggith; but she bore him after Absalom's mother had bore him, so that he was next son; and now Amnon, Chileab, or Daniel, and Absalom, being all dead, he was the eldest son living, and upon this he founded his claim to the throne, and his hope of succeeding.And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why hast thou done so? and he also was a very goodly man; and his mother bare him after Absalom.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)6. had not displeased him at any time] Had never administered a rebuke whatever wrong act he might have done. We may almost judge that Absalom was in like manner a spoilt child, brought under no correction.
a very goodly man] A fine and commanding figure was no small recommendation for an aspirant to a throne. Compare the account of Saul’s personal appearance (1 Samuel 9:2).
and his mother bare him after Absalom] The Hebrew has ‘and she bare him &c.,’ the italics his mother being added in A.V. to mark that the verb in the original is feminine. The same device is adopted in Numbers 26:59. But the English of the A.V. in the present passage might be taken to mean that Absalom and Adonijah were both sons of Haggith, whereas Absalom’s mother (2 Samuel 3:3) was Maacah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. It is better to render and he was born, thus avoiding any ambiguity.Verse 6. - And his father had not displeased [or pained, afflicted. The LXX. has ἀπεκώλυσεν] him at any time [Hebrews from his days, i.e., all his days, LXX. οὐδέποτε, Vulg. a diebus ejus. Sein Lebtage (Bahr). Some (Seb. Schmiat, e.g.) would understand since the days of his ambition and display"] in saying, Why hast thou done so? and he also [i.e., he also, as well as Absalom, mentioned presently; or, possibly, he as well as Abishag just mentioned. Bahr's rendering, "Und dazu war er sehr schon," etc. "And moreover he" was, etc. will not stand] was a very goodly man [cf. 2 Samuel 14:25. This accounted in part not only for his ambition, but also for his following]; and his mother [the two last words are not in the original, which simply has "and she bare," יָלְדָה. There is no need, Thenius, to read, רו ,תךענךג יָלַד with others, הולִיד. We have a similar ellipsis in Numbers 26:59. The meaning is quite clear, viz., that Haggith bare Adonijah to David next after Maachah bore him Absalom. This fact is mentioned to show that he was the eldest surviving son; and it shows therefore that seniority counted for something (cf. 1 Kings if. 25)] bare him after Absalom. Judges 20:26; Judges 21:4; 1 Samuel 13:9) upon it to the Lord. "So Jehovah was entreated, and the plague was turned away from Israel."
This remark brings to a close not only the account of this particular occurrence, but also the book itself; whereas in the Chronicles it is still further stated that Jehovah answered David with fire from heaven, which fell upon the burnt-offering; and that after his prayer had been answered thus, David not only continued to offer sacrifice upon the floor of Aravnah, but also fixed upon it as the site for the temple which was afterwards to be built (1 Chronicles 21:27; 1 Chronicles 22:1); and to this there is appended, in 2 Samuel 22:2., an account of the preparations which David made for the building of the temple. It is not affirmed in the Chronicles, however, that David fixed upon this place as the site for the future temple in consequence of a revelation from God, but simply that he did this, because he saw that the Lord had answered him there, and because he could not go to Gibeon, where the tabernacle was standing, to seek the Lord there, on account of the sword of the angel, i.e., on account of the pestilence. The command of God build an altar upon the threshing-floor of Aravnah, and offer expiatory sacrifices upon it, when connected with His answering his prayer by turning away the plague, could not fail to be taken as a distinct intimation to David, that the site of this altar was the place where the Lord would henceforth make known His gracious presence to His people; and this hint was quite sufficient to determine the site for the temple which his son Solomon was to build.
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