1 Chronicles 25:3
Of Jeduthun: the sons of Jeduthun; Gedaliah, and Zeri, and Jeshaiah, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, six, under the hands of their father Jeduthun, who prophesied with a harp, to give thanks and to praise the LORD.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(3) Of Jeduthun: the sons of Jeduthun.—Rather, To Jeduthun (i.e., belonging to the guild so called): the sons of Jeduthun were Gedaliah, &c.

Zeri.—The “Izri” of 1Chronicles 25:11 is probably right. (Comp. Numbers 26:49.) The error here is as old as the ancient versions.

Six.—Only five names are now read in the text; that of “Shimei” (1Chronicles 25:17) has fallen out, the only name in 1Chronicles 25:9-31 which does not occur in 1Chronicles 25:2-4. The Alex. LXX. inserts the name between Jeshaiah and Hashabiah.

Jeshaiah.—Elsewhere spelled Isaiah.

Under the hands (see last verse) of their father Jeduthun, who prophesied with a harp.—Literally, according to the Hebrew punctuation, at the hands of their father Jeduthun, with the lute (i.e., provided with lutes, 1Chronicles 15:16), who prophesied (or was to prophesy) for giving thanks and praise to Jehovah. (Comp. 1Chronicles 16:4).

At the hands of their father.—Under the direction of their conductor.

25:1-31 The singers and musicians. - David put those in order who were appointed to be singers and musicians in the temple. To prophesy, in this place, means praising God with great earnestness and devout affections, under the influences of the Holy Spirit. In raising these affections, poetry and music were employed. If the Spirit of God do not put life and fervour into our devotions, they will, however ordered, be a lifeless, worthless form.Under the hands of Asaph ... - That is to say, "under the direction of Asaph" - who himself "prophesied," or performed the sacred services, "under the direction of the king." 2. according to the order of the king—Hebrew, "by the hands of the king," that is, "according to the king's order," under the personal superintendence of Asaph and his colleagues.

which prophesied—that is, in this connection, played with instruments. This metaphorical application of the term "prophecy" most probably originated in the practice of the prophets, who endeavored to rouse their prophetic spirit by the animating influence of music (see on [403]2Ki 3:15). It is said that Asaph did this "according to David's order," because by royal appointment he officiated in the tabernacle on Zion (1Ch 16:37-41), while other leaders of the sacred music were stationed at Gibeon.

The sons of Jeduthun, or, his sons, (the construct form being used before the absolute, of which there are examples in Scripture,) Jeduthun, called by his father’s name; otherwise they are not six, unless either Jeduthun their father be included in that number, or Shimei, mentioned 1 Chronicles 25:17, be one of them, as many learned men think. See the like, 1 Chronicles 24:23.

Of Jeduthun,.... Or Ethan, the sons of Jeduthun:

Gedaliah and Zeri; called Izri, 1 Chronicles 25:11,

and Jeshaiah, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, six; whereas five only are mentioned; it may be thought that Shimei, 1 Chronicles 25:17 is the sixth, he not being mentioned elsewhere; it is a tradition of the Jews, that his mother was now with child of him, and it being foreseen by the Holy Spirit that he would be the chief of a course, the number six is given, as Jarchi observes; but rather, as Kimchi, he was young, and not fit to sing, yet was chosen the head of a course, until he was grown up and fit for it; to these six came up the second, fourth, eighth, twelfth, fourteenth, and tenth lots, 1 Chronicles 25:9 and these

were under the hands of their father Jeduthun; to instruct and direct them, and appoint their service to them:

who prophesied with a harp; or sung a prophetic psalm or hymn on that:

to give thanks, and to praise the Lord; for what he had done and promised, and foretold he would do for his people.

Of Jeduthun: the sons of Jeduthun; Gedaliah, and Zeri, and Jeshaiah, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, {b} six, under the hands of their father Jeduthun, who {c} prophesied with a harp, to give thanks and to praise the LORD.

(b) Of which one is not here numbered.

(c) Meaning, psalms and songs to praise God.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
3. Jeduthun] See 1 Chronicles 16:41, note.

Zeri] In 1 Chronicles 25:11 “Izri.”

Jeshaiah] After this LXX. B inserts the name “Shimei” (Σεμεεὶ), no doubt rightly for (1) six sons are reckoned in this verse, (2) the “Shimei” of 1 Chronicles 25:17 is otherwise unmentioned in 1 Chronicles 25:2-4, though his twenty-three companions are named.

Jeduthun, who prophesied with a harp to give thanks and to praise] R.V. Jeduthun with the harp, who prophesied in giving thanks and praising.

Verse 3. - Six sons are here said to be under the direction of Jeduthun (or Ethan, 1 Chronicles 6:44). The name missing is Shimei, supplied by ver. 17, and which the Alexandrine Septuagint places fourth in this list. This is clear from the list of vers. 9-31, which contains all the same names as are found in the present vers. 2-4, and one more, Shimei, which therefore offers to supply the place vacant here. The name Zeri reappears in ver. 11 as Izri. Who prophesied (see headings to Psalm 39; Psalm 62; Psalm 77.: we do not know, however, that Jeduthun composed any of these, nor does the word "prophesy" necessitate it). 1 Chronicles 25:3With אסף לבני the enumeration beings: "Of Asaph's sons were, or to Asaph's sons belonged, Zacchur," etc. Four are here named, but the number is not stated, while it is given in the case of the sons of Jeduthun and Heman, 1 Chronicles 25:3 and 1 Chronicles 25:5. על־יד, at the hand, alternates with על־ידי (1 Chronicles 25:3 and 1 Chronicles 25:6), and אסף יד על does not of itself express a different relationship to Asaph than that expressed by המּלך ידי על with reference to the king. It signifies only "under (according to) the direction of;" and in 1 Chronicles 25:6 the king, Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman are co-ordinated, inasmuch as the musical part of the worship was arranged by David and the three chief musicians in common, although only the latter were concerned in its performance. In 1 Chronicles 25:3 לידוּתוּן is placed at the beginning, because the choir of singers led by him bore his name; and so also in the case of Heman, 1 Chronicles 25:4. "As to Jeduthun, were sons of Jeduthun." The word sons in these catalogues denotes not merely actual sons, but those intellectually sons, i.e., scholars taught by the master. This is clear from the fact that the twenty-four classes, each of which numbered twelve men, consist of sons and brothers of the leaders. The names given as those of the sons of Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman, in 1 Chronicles 25:2-5, do not represent the whole number of the scholars of these masters, but only the presidents of the twenty-four classes of Levites who were engaged under their leadership in performing the sacred music. Only five sons of Jeduthun are named in our text, while according to the number given there should be six. A comparison of the names in vv. 9-31 shows that in 1 Chronicles 25:3 the name שׁמעי (1 Chronicles 25:17) has been dropped out. בּכּנּור belongs to ידוּתוּן: under the direction of their father Jeduthun (the master), upon the kinnor (see on 1 Chronicles 15:16), who was inspired to sing praise, i.e., who played inspiredly to bring praise and honour to the Lord; cf. 1 Chronicles 16:4; 1 Chronicles 23:30, etc.
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