1 Chronicles 25:2
Of the sons of Asaph; Zaccur, and Joseph, and Nethaniah, and Asarelah, the sons of Asaph under the hands of Asaph, which prophesied according to the order of the king.
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(2) Of the sons of Asaph; Zaccur.—Literally, To the sons of Asaph belonged Zaccur. In 1Chronicles 25:2-7 the term “sons” appears to mean trained members of the musical guilds, of which the three chiefs, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun, were masters.

Asarelah.—This singular name is spelt “Jesharelah” in 1Chronicles 25:14. Ewald identifies it with “Israel,” the unaccented ending ah having the force belonging to—literally, towards, unto—so that Jesharelah is in effect the modern Jewish surname Israels. (Comp. “Jaakobah,” 1Chronicles 4:36, to Jacob, i.e., Jacobs.)

Under the hands of Asaph.—Rather, at the hand of Asaph. It is implied that the four leaders here named were subordinate to Asaph, and under his direction. (Comp. 1Chronicles 25:3; 1Chronicles 25:6; 2Chronicles 23:18; 2Chronicles 29:27; Ezra 3:10.)

Which prophesied according to the order of the king.—Literally (Asaph), who prophesied (or should prophesy, the participle, as in 1Chronicles 25:1) at the hands of the king: that is, either according to the royal arrangements (2Chronicles 23:18), under David’s own appointment, or under the royal direction.

Prophesied.—That is, made music. (See 1Chronicles 25:1.)

1 Chronicles 25:2-3. Under the hands of Asaph — Under his oversight and direction. According to the order of the king — In such manner and order as David appointed. The sons of Jeduthun, six — Jeduthun, their father, being included in that number; or Shimei, mentioned 1 Chronicles 25:17.

25:1-31 The singers and musicians. - David put those in order who were appointed to be singers and musicians in the temple. To prophesy, in this place, means praising God with great earnestness and devout affections, under the influences of the Holy Spirit. In raising these affections, poetry and music were employed. If the Spirit of God do not put life and fervour into our devotions, they will, however ordered, be a lifeless, worthless form.Under the hands of Asaph ... - That is to say, "under the direction of Asaph" - who himself "prophesied," or performed the sacred services, "under the direction of the king." 2. according to the order of the king—Hebrew, "by the hands of the king," that is, "according to the king's order," under the personal superintendence of Asaph and his colleagues.

which prophesied—that is, in this connection, played with instruments. This metaphorical application of the term "prophecy" most probably originated in the practice of the prophets, who endeavored to rouse their prophetic spirit by the animating influence of music (see on [403]2Ki 3:15). It is said that Asaph did this "according to David's order," because by royal appointment he officiated in the tabernacle on Zion (1Ch 16:37-41), while other leaders of the sacred music were stationed at Gibeon.

Under the hands of Asaph, i.e. under his oversight and direction. According to the order of the king; in such manner and order as David appointed.

Of the sons of Asaph,.... Who were separated, and by lot appointed, to the service of singers in the temple:

Zaccur, and Joseph, and Nethaniah, and Asarelah; called Jesharelah, 1 Chronicles 25:14, these had the third fourth, fifth, and seventh lots, 1 Chronicles 25:9,

under the hands of Asaph; under his instruction and authority:

which prophesied according to the order of the king; which Asaph composed psalms under the inspiration of the Spirit of God, and was ordered by King David to sing them, and by whose command they were inserted in the book of Psalms, where they now stand with his name to them.

Of the sons of Asaph; Zaccur, and Joseph, and Nethaniah, and Asarelah, the sons of Asaph under the hands of Asaph, which prophesied according to the order of the king.
2. Asaph] See 1 Chronicles 15:17, note.

Asarelah] R.V. Asharelah; in 1 Chronicles 25:14 “Jesharelah.”

under the hands] R.V. under the hand.

prophesied] i.e. sang and praised in the manner of prophets; cp. 1 Chronicles 25:3, “prophesied with a harp, to give thanks and to praise the Lord.” There is no reference to prediction here. Cp. 1 Samuel 10:5.

according to the order] R.V. after the order. All was done according to the order established by king David.

Verse 2. - Four sons of Asaph are here given, the number, however, not being ex. pressed, although it is expressed in the cases of Jeduthun and Heman (vers. 3, 5). "For Asaph," we find twelve psalms inscribed, viz. Psalm 1; Psalm 73-83; of some of which he was himself the inspired composer. When it is said "for Asaph," the meaning is for those "under his hand," or direction, and who as a band bore his name, and performed among other odes those which he prophesied. Zaccur. A descendant after the Return is mentioned in Nehemiah 12:35. Asarelah. This last of the four sons of Asaph is called in ver. 14, Jesharelah. Under the hands of... according to the order of. The Hebrew words are "to the hand of" and "to the hands of." Between the signification of these two forms, the one expressed in the singular number and the ether in the plural, there does not seem to be any distinction, and accordingly they might be better translated, under the direction of... under the directions of. The latter form is that found in vers. 3, 6. 1 Chronicles 25:2With אסף לבני the enumeration beings: "Of Asaph's sons were, or to Asaph's sons belonged, Zacchur," etc. Four are here named, but the number is not stated, while it is given in the case of the sons of Jeduthun and Heman, 1 Chronicles 25:3 and 1 Chronicles 25:5. על־יד, at the hand, alternates with על־ידי (1 Chronicles 25:3 and 1 Chronicles 25:6), and אסף יד על does not of itself express a different relationship to Asaph than that expressed by המּלך ידי על with reference to the king. It signifies only "under (according to) the direction of;" and in 1 Chronicles 25:6 the king, Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman are co-ordinated, inasmuch as the musical part of the worship was arranged by David and the three chief musicians in common, although only the latter were concerned in its performance. In 1 Chronicles 25:3 לידוּתוּן is placed at the beginning, because the choir of singers led by him bore his name; and so also in the case of Heman, 1 Chronicles 25:4. "As to Jeduthun, were sons of Jeduthun." The word sons in these catalogues denotes not merely actual sons, but those intellectually sons, i.e., scholars taught by the master. This is clear from the fact that the twenty-four classes, each of which numbered twelve men, consist of sons and brothers of the leaders. The names given as those of the sons of Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman, in 1 Chronicles 25:2-5, do not represent the whole number of the scholars of these masters, but only the presidents of the twenty-four classes of Levites who were engaged under their leadership in performing the sacred music. Only five sons of Jeduthun are named in our text, while according to the number given there should be six. A comparison of the names in vv. 9-31 shows that in 1 Chronicles 25:3 the name שׁמעי (1 Chronicles 25:17) has been dropped out. בּכּנּור belongs to ידוּתוּן: under the direction of their father Jeduthun (the master), upon the kinnor (see on 1 Chronicles 15:16), who was inspired to sing praise, i.e., who played inspiredly to bring praise and honour to the Lord; cf. 1 Chronicles 16:4; 1 Chronicles 23:30, etc.
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