1 Chronicles 12:20
As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and Michael, and Jozabad, and Elihu, and Zilthai, captains of the thousands that were of Manasseh.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(20) As he went to Ziklag.—On his dismissal by the Philistine princes, David returned with his men to Ziklag (1Samuel 30:1). On the way he was joined by the Manassite chieftains, probably before the battle which decided the fate of Saul and his sons (1Samuel 29:11).

Jozabad.—The repetition may be a scribe’s error. (Comp. 1Chronicles 12:10; 1Chronicles 12:13, where we find the name Jeremiah given twice over.)

Captains of the thousands that were of Manasseh.—(Comp. Numbers 31:14; and 1Chronicles 13:1; 1Chronicles 15:25; 1Chronicles 26:26.) The term “thousand” interchanges with “father-house” (clan); and perhaps each clan originally furnished 1,000 warriors to the tribal host.

12:1-22 Here is an account of those who appeared and acted as David's friends, while he was persecuted. No difficulties or dangers should keep the sinner from coming to the Savior, nor drive the believer from the path of duty. Those who break through, and overcome in these attempts, will find abundant recompence. From the words of Amasai we may learn how to testify our affection and allegiance to the Lord Jesus; his we must be throughly; on his side we must be forward to appear and act. If we are under the influence of the Spirit, we shall desire to have our lot among them, and to declare ourselves on their side; if in faith and love we embrace the cause of Christ, he will receive, employ, and advance us.Amasai - The marginal reference identifies him with Amasa, David's nephew, but it seems unlikely that David would have misdoubted a band led by his own nephew.

The passionate earnestness of Amasai's speech is strongly marked in the original, and will be better seen by omitting the words which our Version adds in italics. Here, as in 1 Chronicles 12:8-15, we have manifestly the actual words of a very ancient record.

20. As he went to Ziklag—If those Manassites joined him on his return to Ziklag, after his dismissal from the Philistine army, then their arrival took place before the battle of Gilboa could have been fought (compare 1Sa 29:11). Convinced of the desperate state of Saul's affairs, they abandoned him, and resolved to transfer their allegiance to David. But some learned men think that they came as fugitives from that disastrous field [Calmet and Ewald].

captains of the thousands … of Manasseh—Those seven were commanders of the large military divisions of their tribe.

As he went to Ziklag; as he returned from the camp of the Philistines to Ziklag, 1 Samuel 29:11. As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh,.... Others besides the former, who joined him when he went with the Philistines; these joined him when he was dismissed from them, and was returning to Ziklag: namely:

Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and Michael, and Jozabad, and Elihu, and Zilthai, captains of the thousands that were of Manasseh; that tribe being, as the rest were, divided into hundreds and thousands; these were captains over the thousands of the militia of the tribe.

As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and Michael, and Jozabad, and Elihu, and Zilthai, captains of the thousands that were of Manasseh.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
20. As he went] i.e. As he returned (1 Samuel 30:1).

Jozabad] This name occurs twice; possibly in the original list different patronymics were attached to the two mentions of the name.

captains of the thousands] R.V. captains of thousands; cp. 1 Chronicles 15:25; Micah 5:2. Tribes were divided into “thousands” which were subdivided into “hundreds.” These divisions were of civil as well as of military significance.Verse 20. - Although those of Manasseh who wished to ally themselves with David did not - most providentially for David and his Ziklag people - have the opportunity of aiding him when, on the eve of Gilboa, he was about to aid Achish the prince of the Philistines against the Israelites and Saul, yet their help must have come in useful when, on his return "to Ziklag on the third day," he found what the Amalekites had done, and pursued them (1 Samuel 30:1-6, 11-25). Seven is the number also of Eastern Manasseh mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:24. Nothing is now said of the men belonging to them joining with them. Jozabad. One manuscript quoted by Kennicott has for this name on its first occurrence Jechabar. It is scarcely likely that the same name should appear twice in this short list, without some qualifying mark being put to one of the two. Nothing else is known of these seven cap-talus of the thousands of Manasseh. הצּבא ראשׁי, heads of the war-host, i.e., chief warriors, not leaders of the host. וגו למאה אחד, "one for a hundred, (viz.) the small and the greater for a thousand," i.e., the smaller (weaker) could cope with a hundred, the stronger with a thousand men; cf. Leviticus 26:8. This, which is the only correct interpretation, is that received by Bertheau and the older Jewish commentators. The Vulgate, on the contrary, translates, novissimus centum militibus praeerat et maximus mille, which is inadmissible, for in that case על must have been used instead of ל. The אחד belongs to both the clauses which it precedes, to הקּטן and to הגּדול, and is placed immediately before למאה to emphasize the contrast between one and a hundred. In 1 Chronicles 12:15 we have a proof of their valour, in an account of a bold exploit performed by them. In the first month of the year, that is, in spring, when the Jordan overflows all its banks, they crossed the river and put to flight all the dwellers in the valleys towards the east and towards the west. This happened, probably, when they separated themselves from their brethren and went over to David, when they must have had to cut their way through the adherents of Saul (Berth.). The Piel מלּא with על denotes to make full, to make to run over, in the signification to overflow. The Kethibh גּדיתיו comes from גּדיה elsewhere only the plural גּדתיו, so also here in the Keri. In the dry summer season the Jordan may be crossed by wading at various points (fords); while in spring, on the contrary, when it is so swollen by the melting snows of Lebanon, that in some parts it overflows its banks, it is very dangerous to attempt to cross. See on Joshua 3:15. העמקים, "the valleys," for the inhabitants of the valleys.
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