Ephesians 4:18
Parallel Verses
New International Version
They are darkened in their understanding and separated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardening of their hearts.

King James Bible
Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:

Darby Bible Translation
being darkened in understanding, estranged from the life of God by reason of the ignorance which is in them, by reason of the hardness of their hearts,

World English Bible
being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their hearts;

Young's Literal Translation
being darkened in the understanding, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart,

Ephesians 4:18 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

2. Having the understanding darkened - This is the second instance alleged by the apostle of the degradation of the Gentiles. Having no means of knowledge, the heart, naturally dark, became more and more so by means of habitual transgression; every thing in the Gentile system having an immediate tendency to blind the eyes and darken the whole soul.

3. Being alienated from the life of God - The original design of God was to live in man; and the life of God in the soul of man was that by which God intended to make man happy, and without which true happiness was never found by any human spirit: from this through the ignorance that was in them, δια την αγνοιαν την ουσαν, through the substantial or continually existing ignorance, which there was nothing to instruct, nothing to enlighten; for the most accurate writings of their best philosophers left them entirely ignorant of the real nature of God. And if they had no correct knowledge of the true God they could have no religion; and if no religion, no morality. Their moral state became so wretched that they are represented as abhorring every thing spiritual and pure, for this is the import of the word απηλλοτριωμενοι (which we translate alienated) in some of the best Greek writers. They abhorred every thing that had a tendency to lay any restraint on their vicious passions and inclinations.

4. Blindness of their heart - Δια την πωρωσιν· Because of the callousness of their hearts. Callous signifies a thickening of the outward skin of any particular part, especially on the hands and feet, by repeated exercise or use, through which such parts are rendered insensible. This may be metaphorically applied to the conscience of a sinner, which is rendered stupid and insensible by repeated acts of iniquity.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the understanding.

Psalm 74:20 Have respect to the covenant: for the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty.

Psalm 115:4-8 Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men's hands...

Isaiah 44:18-20 They have not known nor understood: for he has shut their eyes, that they cannot see; and their hearts, that they cannot understand...

Isaiah 46:5-8 To whom will you liken me, and make me equal, and compare me, that we may be like...

Acts 17:30 And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commands all men every where to repent:

Acts 26:17,18 Delivering you from the people, and from the Gentiles, to whom now I send you...

Romans 1:21-23,28 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations...

1 Corinthians 1:21 For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God...

2 Corinthians 4:4 In whom the god of this world has blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ...

Galatians 4:8 However, then, when you knew not God, you did service to them which by nature are no gods.

1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:

alienated.

Ephesians 2:12 That at that time you were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise...

Romans 8:7,8 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be...

Galatians 4:8 However, then, when you knew not God, you did service to them which by nature are no gods.

Colossians 1:21 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now has he reconciled

1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:

James 4:4 You adulterers and adulteresses, know you not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God?...

because.

Romans 1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations...

Romans 2:19 And are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light of them which are in darkness,

1 John 2:11 But he that hates his brother is in darkness, and walks in darkness, and knows not where he goes...

blindness. or, hardness.

Daniel 5:20 But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne...

Matthew 13:15 For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed...

John 12:40 He has blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart...

Romans 11:25 For I would not, brothers, that you should be ignorant of this mystery, lest you should be wise in your own conceits...

*marg:

Library
January 14. "Unto the Measure of the Stature of the Fulness of Christ" (Eph. Iv. 13).
"Unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ" (Eph. iv. 13). God loves us so well that He will not suffer us to take less than His highest will. Some day we shall bless our faithful teacher, who kept the standard inflexibly rigid, and then gave us the strength and grace to reach it, and would not excuse us until we had accomplished all His glorious will. Let us be inexorable with ourselves. Let us mean exactly what God means, and have no discounts upon His promises or commandments. Let
Rev. A. B. Simpson—Days of Heaven Upon Earth

The End of Religion
EPHESIANS iv. 23, 24. Be renewed in the spirit of your mind; and put ye on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. This text is exceedingly valuable to us for it tells us the end and aim of all religion. It tells us why we are to pray, whether at home or in church; why we are to read our Bibles and good books; why we are to be what is commonly called religious. It tells us, I say, the end and aim of all religion; namely, that we may put on 'the new man, which
Charles Kingsley—Discipline and Other Sermons

Grieving the Spirit
'Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.'--Eph. iv. 30. The miracle of Christianity is the Incarnation. It is not a link in a chain, but a new beginning, the entrance into the cosmic order of a Divine Power. The sequel of Bethlehem and Calvary and Olivet is the upper room and the Pentecost. There is the issue of the whole mission and work of Christ--the planting in the heart of humanity of a new and divine life. All Christendom is professing to commemorate
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture Ephesians, Peter,John

The Threefold Unity
'One Lord, one faith, one baptism.'--Eph. iv. 5. The thought of the unity of the Church is very prominent in this epistle. It is difficult for us, amidst our present divisions, to realise how strange and wonderful it then was that a bond should have been found which drew together men of all nations, ranks, and characters. Pharisee and philosopher, high-born women and slaves, Roman patricians and gladiators, Asiatic Greeks and Syrian Jews forgot their feuds and sat together as one in Christ. It is
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture Ephesians, Peter,John

Cross References
Isaiah 25:7
On this mountain he will destroy the shroud that enfolds all peoples, the sheet that covers all nations;

Mark 3:5
He looked around at them in anger and, deeply distressed at their stubborn hearts, said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was completely restored.

Acts 3:17
"Now, fellow Israelites, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders.

Acts 17:30
In the past God overlooked such ignorance, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent.

Romans 1:21
For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened.

Romans 11:7
What then? What the people of Israel sought so earnestly they did not obtain. The elect among them did, but the others were hardened,

Romans 11:25
I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in,

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