Ephesians 4:18
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
They are darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, due to their hardness of heart.

King James Bible
Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:

American Standard Version
being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their heart;

Douay-Rheims Bible
Having their understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their hearts.

English Revised Version
being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their heart;

Webster's Bible Translation
Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:

Weymouth New Testament
with darkened understandings, having by reason of the ignorance which is deep-seated in them and the insensibility of their moral nature, no share in the Life which God gives.

Ephesians 4:18 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

Understanding (διανοίᾳ)

See on Luke 1:51. The moral understanding.

Life of God (ζωῆς)

See on John 1:4. The life which God bestows; life in Christ. See 1 John 5:11.

Through the ignorance

The cause of the alienation. Not to be construed with darkened, since ignorance is the effect, and not the cause, of the darkness of the understanding.

Which is in them (τὴν οὖσαν ἐν αὐτοῖς)

The participle of the substantive verb expresses the deep-seated, indwelling character of the ignorance.

Hardening (πώρωσιν)

See on Mark 3:5. Dependent, like ignorance, on alienated. Arrange the whole clause thus:

The Gentiles walk in the vanity of their mind,

being darkened in their understanding,

being alienated from the life of God,

because of the ignorance that is in them,

continued...

Ephesians 4:18 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the understanding.

Psalm 74:20 Have respect to the covenant: for the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty.

Psalm 115:4-8 Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men's hands...

Isaiah 44:18-20 They have not known nor understood: for he has shut their eyes, that they cannot see; and their hearts, that they cannot understand...

Isaiah 46:5-8 To whom will you liken me, and make me equal, and compare me, that we may be like...

Acts 17:30 And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commands all men every where to repent:

Acts 26:17,18 Delivering you from the people, and from the Gentiles, to whom now I send you...

Romans 1:21-23,28 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations...

1 Corinthians 1:21 For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God...

2 Corinthians 4:4 In whom the god of this world has blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ...

Galatians 4:8 However, then, when you knew not God, you did service to them which by nature are no gods.

1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:

alienated.

Ephesians 2:12 That at that time you were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise...

Romans 8:7,8 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be...

Galatians 4:8 However, then, when you knew not God, you did service to them which by nature are no gods.

Colossians 1:21 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now has he reconciled

1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:

James 4:4 You adulterers and adulteresses, know you not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God?...

because.

Romans 1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations...

Romans 2:19 And are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light of them which are in darkness,

1 John 2:11 But he that hates his brother is in darkness, and walks in darkness, and knows not where he goes...

blindness. or, hardness.

Daniel 5:20 But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne...

Matthew 13:15 For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed...

John 12:40 He has blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart...

Romans 11:25 For I would not, brothers, that you should be ignorant of this mystery, lest you should be wise in your own conceits...

*marg:

Cross References
Isaiah 25:7
And he will swallow up on this mountain the covering that is cast over all peoples, the veil that is spread over all nations.

Mark 3:5
And he looked around at them with anger, grieved at their hardness of heart, and said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored.

Acts 3:17
"And now, brothers, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did also your rulers.

Acts 17:30
The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent,

Romans 1:21
For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened.

Romans 11:7
What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened,

Romans 11:25
Lest you be wise in your own sight, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers: a partial hardening has come upon Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.

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