Matthew 19:29
And every one that has forsaken houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive an hundred times, and shall inherit everlasting life.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(29) Every one that hath forsaken.—While the loyalty and faith of the Apostles were rewarded with a promise which satisfied their hopes then, and would bring with it, as they entered more deeply into its meaning, an ever-increasing satisfaction, their claim to a special privilege and reward was at least indirectly rebuked. Not for them only, but for all who had done or should hereafter do as they did, should there be a manifold reward, even within the limits of their earthly life, culminating hereafter in the full fruition of the “eternal life” of which they had heard so recently in the question of the young ruler.

For my name’s sake.—The variations in the other Gospels, “for my sake and the gospel’s” (Mark 10:29), “for the kingdom of God’s sake” (Luke 18:29), are significant, (1) as explanatory, (2) as showing that the substantial meaning of all three is the same. The act of forsaking home and wealth must not originate in a far-sighted calculation of reward; it must proceed from devotion to a Person and a cause, must tend to the furtherance of the gospel and the establishment of the divine Kingdom.

Shall receive an hundredfold.—The better MSS. have “manifold more,” as in St. Luke. The received reading agrees with St. Mark. Here it is manifestly impossible to take the words literally, and this may well make us hesitate in expecting a literal fulfilment of the promise that precedes. We cannot look for the hundredfold of houses, or wives, or children. What is meant is, that the spirit of insight and self-sacrifice for the sake of God’s kingdom multiplies and intensifies even the common joys of life. Relationships multiply on the ground of spiritual sympathies. New homes are opened to us. We find new friends. The common things of life—sky, and sea, and earth—are clothed with a new beauty to the cleansed eyes of those who have conquered self. St. Mark (Mark 10:30) adds words which, if one may so speak, are so strange that they must have been actually spoken,—“with persecutions.” We seem to hear the words spoken as a parenthesis, and in a tone of tender sadness, not, perhaps, altogether unmingled with a touch of the method which teaches new truths, by first meeting men’s expectations, and then suddenly presenting that which is at variance with them. The thoughts of the disciples were travelling on to that “hundredfold,” as though it meant that all things should be smooth and prosperous with them. They are reminded that persecution in some shape, the trials that test and strengthen, is inseparable from the higher life of the kingdom. (Comp. Acts 14:22.) Men need that discipline in order that they may feel that the new things are better than the old.

Matthew 19:29-30. And every one — In every age and country, and not you my apostles only; that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or wife, or children — Either by giving any of them up, when they could not be retained with a clear conscience; or by willingly refraining from acquiring them: shall receive a hundred-fold — In value, though not in kind, even in the present world, in the inward satisfaction and divine consolation attending real religion; and inherit everlasting life — Shall enjoy to all eternity that unspeakable felicity and glory which God has prepared for all his children, and especially for those who have cheerfully made such sacrifices as those, and have given such proofs of their faith in, and love to, their God and Saviour. But many first — In the advantages and privileges which they enjoy; shall — notwithstanding this, fall short of others, and be last — in the great day of accounts; and those who are the last, shall prove in this respect the first: for some, from whom it might be least expected, shall embrace the gospel, and courageously endure the greatest hardships for it; while others, with far greater advantages, shall reject it, and under much stronger engagements shall desert it. The words thus interpreted may be considered as a prediction that the Gentiles would receive and obey the gospel, while the Jews should reject it. As if he had said, “Though you may imagine that you and your brethren have a peculiar title to the great and substantial blessings of my kingdom, which I have been describing, the Gentiles shall have equal opportunities and advantages for obtaining them; because they shall be admitted to all the privileges of the gospel on the same footing with you Jews; nay, in point of time, they shall be before you; for they shall generally embrace the gospel before your nation is converted, Romans 11:25-26.” — Macknight. The words may also be thus interpreted: Many that are first in profession, and in the opinion of their fellow-creatures, and their own opinion, for piety and virtue, shall be last in my esteem, and in that of my Father, or shall be found wanting, and therefore shall be condemned at the day of judgment: and the last in the opinion of men, and in their own opinion, and who are despised and rejected by those that judge according to appearance, shall be first — Shall be preferred to others, and be found highest in my favour in that day. The passage has evidently yet another sense, namely, Many of those who were first called shall be last, shall have the lowest reward, those who came after them being preferred before them: and yet possibly both the first and the last may be saved, though with different degrees of glory. The doctrine contained in this sentence is illustrated by the parable of the householder, contained in the beginning of the following chapter. 19:23-30 Though Christ spoke so strongly, few that have riches do not trust in them. How few that are poor are not tempted to envy! But men's earnestness in this matter is like their toiling to build a high wall to shut themselves and their children out of heaven. It should be satisfaction to those who are in a low condition, that they are not exposed to the temptations of a high and prosperous condition. If they live more hardly in this world than the rich, yet, if they get more easily to a better world, they have no reason to complain. Christ's words show that it is hard for a rich man to be a good Christian, and to be saved. The way to heaven is a narrow way to all, and the gate that leads into it, a strait gate; particularly so to rich people. More duties are expected from them than from others, and more sins easily beset them. It is hard not to be charmed with a smiling world. Rich people have a great account to make up for their opportunities above others. It is utterly impossible for a man that sets his heart upon his riches, to get to heaven. Christ used an expression, denoting a difficulty altogether unconquerable by the power of man. Nothing less than the almighty grace of God will enable a rich man to get over this difficulty. Who then can be saved? If riches hinder rich people, are not pride and sinful lusts found in those not rich, and as dangerous to them? Who can be saved? say the disciples. None, saith Christ, by any created power. The beginning, progress, and perfecting the work of salvation, depend wholly on the almighty power of God, to which all things are possible. Not that rich people can be saved in their worldliness, but that they should be saved from it. Peter said, We have forsaken all. Alas! it was but a poor all, only a few boats and nets; yet observe how Peter speaks, as if it had been some mighty thing. We are too apt to make the most of our services and sufferings, our expenses and losses, for Christ. However, Christ does not upbraid them; though it was but little that they had forsaken, yet it was their all, and as dear to them as if it had been more. Christ took it kindly that they left it to follow him; he accepts according to what a man hath. Our Lord's promise to the apostles is, that when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, he will make all things new, and they shall sit with him in judgement on those who will be judged according to their doctrine. This sets forth the honour, dignity, and authority of their office and ministry. Our Lord added, that every one who had forsaken possessions or comforts, for his sake and the gospel, would be recompensed at last. May God give us faith to rest our hope on this his promise; then we shall be ready for every service or sacrifice. Our Saviour, in the last verse, does away a mistake of some. The heavenly inheritance is not given as earthly ones are, but according to God's pleasure. Let us not trust in promising appearances or outward profession. Others may, for aught we know, become eminent in faith and holiness.And every one that hath forsaken houses ... - In the days of Jesus, those who followed him were obliged, generally, to forsake houses and home, and to attend him.

In our time it is not often required that we should literally leave them, except when the life is devoted to him among the pagan; but it is always required that we love them less than we do him, that we give up all that is inconsistent with religion, and that we be ready to give up all when he demands it.

For my name's sake - From attachment to me. Mark adds, "and for the gospel's;" that is, from obedience to the requirements of the gospel, and love for the service of the gospel.

Shall receive a hundred-fold - Mark says "a hundred-fold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters," etc. A hundred-fold means a hundred times as much. This is not to be understood literally, but that he will give what will be worth 100 times as much in the peace, and joy, and rewards of religion. It is also literally true that no man's temporal interest is injured by the love of God. Mark adds, "with persecutions." These are not promised as a part of the reward; but amid their trials and persecutions they should find reward and peace.

Mt 19:16-30. The Rich Young Ruler. ( = Mr 10:17-31; Lu 18:18-30).

For the exposition, see on [1330]Lu 18:18-30.

Mark saith, Mark 10:29,30, for my sake, and the gospel’s, but he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life. Luke saith, Luke 18:29,30, for the kingdom of God’s sake, who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting. The words are a liberal promise, and we must consider,

1. To whom it is made.

2. Of what it is.

The former promise respected the apostles, and was special, as appears by the number of twelve thrones. This respecteth all those that should forsake any thing, houses, brethren, lands, sisters, fathers, mothers, wife, children, for Christ; which is expressed by three phrases (for my name’s sake, for the gospel’s sake, for the kingdom of God’s sake) all of the same import; rather than they will forsake me, and the profession of my gospel; rather than they will sin against God. The promise is,

1. Of an hundredfold in this time.

2. Of eternal life.

We must not understand of an hundredfold in specie, but in value. Therefore Mark saith, he shall receive what he hath in this life with persecutions. What is therefore this hundredfold in this life?

1. Joy in the Holy Ghost, peace of conscience, the sense of God’s love; so as, with the apostles, they shall rejoice that they are thought worthy to suffer any thing for the name of Christ, Acts 5:41. They shall, with Paul and Silas, Acts 16:25, sing in the prison; with those, Hebrews 10:34, take joyfully the spoiling of their goods, knowing they have in heaven a better and an enduring substance. This inward joy and peace shall be a hundredfold more than fathers and mothers, or brethren, or sisters.

2. Contentment. They shall have a contented frame of spirit with the little that is left; though they have not so much to drink as they had, yet they shall have less thirst, Philippians 4:11,12.

3. God will stir up the hearts of others to supply their wants, and that supply shall be sweeter to them than their abundance was.

4. God sometimes repays them in this life, as he restored Job after his trial to greater riches. But they shall have a certain reward in another world, eternal happiness. And everyone that hath forsaken houses,.... Not only the then disciples of Christ, but any other believer in him, whether at that time, or in any age, that should be called to quit their habitations, or leave their dearest relations, friends, and substance: as

brethren or sisters, or father or mother, or wife or children, lands, for my name's sake; or, as in Luke, "for the kingdom of God's sake"; that is, for the sake of the Gospel, and a profession of it. Not that believing in Christ, and professing his name, do necessarily require a parting with all worldly substance, and natural relations, but when these things stand in competition with Christ, he is to be loved and preferred before them; and believers are always to be ready to part with them for his sake, when persecution arises, because of the word. All these things are to be relinquished, rather than Christ, and his Gospel; and such who shall be enabled, through divine grace, to do so,

shall receive an hundred fold: Mark adds, "now in this time"; and Luke likewise, "in this present time", in this world; which may be understood either in spiritual things, the love of God, the presence of Christ, the comforts of the Holy Ghost, the communion of saints, and the joys and pleasures felt in the enjoyment of these things, being an hundred times more and better to them, than all they have left or lost for Christ's sake; or in temporal things, so in Mark it seems to be explained, that such shall now receive an hundred fold,

even houses and brethren, and sisters and mothers, and children and lands; not that they should receive, for the leaving of one house, an hundred houses; or for forsaking one brother, an hundred brethren, &c. which last indeed might be true, as to a spiritual relation; but that the small pittance of this world's goods, and the few friends they should have "with persecutions" along with them, and amidst them, should be so sweetened to them, with the love and presence of God, that these should be more and better to them than an hundred houses, fields, and friends, without them:

and shall inherit everlasting life. The other evangelists add, "in the world to come", which is infinitely best of all; for this is an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, which fades not away, reserved in the heavens, when all other inheritances are corruptible, defiled, fading and perishing; houses fall, relations die, friends fail, and lands and estates do not continue for ever: they then have the best of it, who being called, in providence, to quit all terrene enjoyments for Christ's sake, are favoured with his presence here, and shall enjoy eternal glory and happiness with him in another world.

And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Matthew 19:29. The promise that has hitherto been restricted to the apostles now becomes general in its application: and (in general) every one who, etc.

ἀφῆκεν] has left, completely abandoned. Comp. Matthew 19:27.

ἕνεκεν τ. ὀν. μ.] i.e. because my name represents the contents of his belief and confession. Comp. Luke 21:12. This leaving of all for the sake of Jesus may take place without persecution, simply by one’s choosing to follow Him as a disciple; but it may also be forced upon one through persecution, as for instance by such a state of matters as we find in Matthew 10:35 ff.

πολλαπλασίονα (see critical notes) λήψεται, according to the context (see καθίσεσθε, Matthew 19:28; κληρονομήσει, Matthew 19:29; ἔσονται, Matthew 19:30), can certainly have no other reference but to the recompense in the future kingdom of the Messiah, in which a manifold compensation will be given for all that may have been forsaken. Here the view of Matthew diverges from that of Mark 10:38, Luke 18:30, both of whom represent this manifold compensation as being given during the period preceding the second advent. This divergence is founded upon a difference of conception, existing from the very first, regarding the promise of Jesus, so that the distinction between the καιρὸς οὗτος and the αἰὼν ἐρχόμενος in Mark and Luke may be regarded as the result of exegetical reflection on the meaning of the expressions in the original Hebrew. The words are likewise correctly referred to the reward of the future world by de Wette, Bleek, Keim, Hilgenfeld, while Fritzsche is at a loss to decide. In opposition to the context, the usual interpretation in the case of Matthew as well, is to refer the promise of a manifold compensation to the αἰὼν οὗτος, some supposing it to point to the happiness arising from Christian ties and relationships, as Jerome, Theophylact, Euthymius Zigabenus, Erasmus, Grotius, Wetstein; others, to the receiving of all things in return for the few (1 Corinthians 3:21; Olshausen); others, again, to inward peace, hope, the fellowship of love (Kuinoel, Calvin), or generally, the spiritual blessings of believers (Bengel); and others still, to Christ Himself, as being (Matthew 12:49 f.) infinitely more to us than father, mother, brother, etc. (Maldonatus, Calovius). Julian mocked at the promise.

κ. ζωὴν αἰ. κληρ.] the crown of the whole, which perfects all by rendering it an eternal possession. Observe, further, how what is promised is represented as a recompense, no doubt, yet not for meritorious works, but for self-denying, trustful obedience to Christ, and to His invitation and will. Comp. Apol. Conf. A., p. 285 f.Matthew 19:29. eneral promise for all faithful ones.—ἀδελφούς, etc.: detailed specification of the things renounced for Christ.—πολλαπλασίονα λήψεται: shall receive manifoldly the things renounced, i.e., in the final order of things, in the new-born world, as nothing is said to the contrary. Mk. and Lk. make the compensation present.—καὶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον: this higher boon, the summum bonum, over and above the compensation in kind. Here the latter comes first; in chap. Matthew 6:33 the order is reversed.29. hath forsaken] Bp Thirlwall remarks, “Strange as it may sound, there is a sense in which it is a most certain truth that a man may leave that which he keeps, and keep that which he leaves. And there can be no doubt that this is the sense in which our Lord meant to be understood. For it is clear that He is speaking not of a mere outward act, but of the disposition from which it proceeds.”

shall receive an hundredfold] St Mark seems to take the words of Jesus in a more literal sense by naming the earthly goods expressly, and adding “now in this time,” but he points to the true and spiritual interpretation by subjoining “with persecutions.”Matthew 19:29. Καὶ πᾶς, and every one) Not only apostles, to whom Peters question ought not to have referred exclusively. See 2 Timothy 4:8.—ἀφῆκεν, hath relinquished) If the Lord so command (as in Matthew 4:19), or thus guide by various means.—οἰκίας, houses[877]) This is placed first; cf. concerning it, Matthew 19:21; Matthew 19:27.—St Matthew, in the present instance, and St Mark, in Matthew 10:29, maintain the order of affection in the enumeration of relations, mentioning them by pairs in an ascending scale, lands being placed last; whereas St Luke, in Matthew 18:29, follows the order of time.—ἤ γυναῖκα, or wife) i.e. without breaking the law of Moses; see Matthew 19:9. The singular number of this word (i.e. wife) should be remarked, as an argument against polygamy; for those things of which there can be more than one, brothers, etc., are put in the plural number in this passage. In like manner in Mark 10:29, οἰκία, a house, is also put in the singular number. A man may, indeed, have more than one house, though such is the case of few; but no one dwells in two at the same time, so as to be able to leave them both at once.—ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀνοματός ΜΟΥ, on account of My name) sc. on account of confessing and preaching the name of Christ.—ἑκατονταπλασίονα, an hundredfold) i.e. of the same things which are enumerated in this verse; cf. Mark 10:30.—λήψεται, shall receive) sc. in this life: for the future life is an hundredfold, nay, a thousandfold more productive in its returns; see Luke 19:16-17. He shall receive them, however, not as civil or personal possessions; yet he truly shall receive them, as far as the believer needs to do so, and he does so in the person of others, to whom, as a believer, he would especially wish them to belong; cf. Matthew 5:5 : Acts 4:35; 1 Corinthians 3:22.—The ungodly are usurpers; the right of possession belongs to God and His heirs; they receive as much as is expedient for them. The word λήψεται (shall receive) agrees rather with the notion of hire or wages: but κληρονομήσει (shall inherit) implies something far more abundant. Scripture speaks more expressly and copiously of temporal punishments than of temporal rewards, and of eternal rewards than of eternal punishments.—ζωὴν, life) see Matthew 19:16-17.

[877] Beng., in his Appar. Crit. on this passage, p. 482, had considered the singular, οἰκίαν, had been derived from the parallel passages in the other Gospels. Hence also in the Gnomon (Ed. ii., p. 128) he preferred the plural number. But in the smaller Ed. of N. T. Gr., A.D. 1753, he changed his opinion, and gave the superiority to the singular, οἰκίαν, by appending the sign β, and with this the Germ. vers. of the passage subsequently corresponds. In this view, the observation in the Gnomon which immediately follows, has the more force.—E. B.

Tischend, reads ἢ οἰκίας after ἤ ἀηροὺς, with CL Memph., MSS. of Vulg. Origen 1,283c; 3,689a. Lachm., as Rec. Text, reads οἰκίας ἢ before ἀδελφοὺς with BD. The oldest MS. of Vulg. (Amiatinus) reads the sing. ‘domum,’ and puts it before “vel fratres aut sorores.” abcd Hil. also read domum.’ Irenaeus, “agros aut domos aut parentes (ἢ γονεῖς) aut fratres aut filios.” The ἢ οἰκίαν first in the enumeration is probably drawn from Mark 8:29 and Luke 18:29.—ED.Verse 29. - Every one that hath forsaken. The Lord extends the promise. Even those who have not risen to the utter self-sacrifice of apostles, who have not surrendered so much as they, shall have their reward, though nothing to be compared to the unspeakable recompense of the twelve. Houses... lands. Some manuscripts, followed by some modern editors, omit or wife, the omission being probably first made by some critical scribe, who deemed that a wife should never be left. The Lord enumerates the persons and objects upon which men's hearts are most commonly and firmly fixed. He begins and ends the list with material possessions - houses and lands, and between them introduces in gradation the most cherished members of the family circle. "Forsaking wife and children" may be understood as abstaining from marriage in order the better to serve God. For my Name's sake. In consequence of belief in Christ, rather than do despite to his grace, or in order to confess and follow him more completely. In times of persecution, under many different cases of pressure, or where his friends were heathens or infidels, a Christian might feel himself constrained to relinquish the dearest ties, to east off all old associations, to put himself wholly in God's hands, freed from all worldly things; such a one should receive ample reward in the present life. An hundredfold. Some read "manifold," as in Luke 18:30. The spiritual relationship into which religion would introduce him largely compensates for the loss of earthly connections. He shall have brothers and sisters in the faith - hundreds who will show him the affection of father and mother, hundreds who will love him as well a s wife and children. And if he suffer temporal loss, this shall be made up by the charity of the Christian society, all whose resources are at his command, and he shall enjoy that peace and comfort of heart which no worldly possessions can give, and which are superior to all changes of fortune. And it may well be that the relief from the cares and distractions caused by wealth brings a hundredfold more real happiness than its possession ever supplied. "Godliness is profitable for all things, having the promise of the life which now is, and of that which is to come" (1 Timothy 4:8). Everlasting life. The hope of future happiness is in itself sufficient to lighten and dissipate all earthly troubles, and to stimulate severest sacrifices. Every one (πᾶς)

Compare 2 Timothy 4:8, "to all them that love his appearing." "Not only apostles, nor ought Peter to have inquired only concerning them" (Bengel). The promise hitherto restricted to the apostles now becomes general.

A hundred-fold (ἑκατονταπλασίονα)

But many very high authorities read πολλαπλασίονα, manifold. So Rev. in margin. Compare Mark 10:30, where there is added "houses and brethren," etc. Also the Arabic proverb: "Purchase the next world with this; so shalt thou win both."

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