Pharaoh Hophra
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Pharaoh Hophra

PHARAOH HOPHRA

hof'-ra (par`oh chophra`; Houaphre):

1. Sole King, 589-570 B.C.:

He is so called in Scripture (Jeremiah 44:30); Herodotus calls him Apries (ii.169). He is known on the monuments as Uah `ab `ra. He was the son of Psammetichus II, whose Greek mercenaries have left in scriptions upon the rocks of Abu-Sim-bel, and the grandson of Pharaoh-necoh. He reigned alone from 589 B.C. to 570 B.C., and jointly, by compulsion of his people, with his son-in-law Aahmes (Greek Amasis) for some years longer.

2. Alliance with Zedekiah:

No sooner had he mounted the throne than he yielded to the overtures of Zedekiah of Judah, who thought Hophra's accession a good opportunity for throwing off the yoke of Babylon. So, as Ezekiel says (17:15), "he rebelled against him (Nebuchadrezzar) in sending his ambassadors into Egypt, that they might give him horses and much people." Zedekiah had entered into the intrigue against the advice of Jeremiah, and it proved fatal to Zedekiah and the kingdom. Nebuchadrezzar was not slow to punish the disloyalty of his vassal, and in a brief space his armies were beleaguering Jerusalem. The Egyptians did indeed march to the relief of their allies, and the Chaldeans drew off their forces from Jerusalem to meet them. But the Egyptians returned without attempting to meet the Chaldeans in a pitched battle, and Jerusalem was taken, the walls broken down and the temple burnt up with fire.

3. Reception of Jeremiah and Jewish Captives:

When Jerusalem had fallen and Nebuchadrezzar's governor, Gedaliah, had been assassinated, the dispirited remnant of Judah, against the advice of Jeremiah, fled into Egypt, carrying the prophet with them. They settled at Tahpanhes, then Daphnae (modern Tell Defenneh), now identified with a mound bearing the significant name of Qatsr Bint el Yahudi, "the palace of the Jew's daughter." Here Pharaoh had a palace, for Jeremiah took great stones and hid them in mortar in the brickwork "which is at the entry of Pharaoh's house at Tahpanhes," and prophesied that Nebuchadrezzar would spread his royal pavilion over them (Jeremiah 43:8-13). The Pharaoh of that day was Hophra, and when the fortress of Tahpanhes was discovered and cleared in 1886, the open-air platform before the entrance was found. "Here the ceremony described by Jeremiah took place before the chiefs of the fugitives assembled on the platform, and here Nebuchadrezzar spread his royal pavilion. The very nature of the site is precisely applicable to all the events" (Flinders Petrie, Nebesheh and Defenneh, 51). It was in 568 B.C. that the prophecy was fulfilled when Nebuchadrezzar marched into the Delta.

4. Palace of Memphis:

More recently, in 1909, in the course of excavations carried on by the British School of Archaeology in Egypt, the palace of King Apries, Pharaoh Hophra, has been discovered on the site of Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt. Under the gray mud hill, close to the squalid Arab village of Mitrahenny, which every tourist passes on the way to Sakkhara, had lain for centuries Hophra's magnificent palace, 400 ft. long by 200 ft., with a splendid pylon, an immense court, and stonelined halls, of which seven have been found intact. With many other objects of value there was found a fitting of a palanquin of solid silver, decorated with a bust of Hathor with a gold face. It is said to be of the finest workmanship of the time of Apries, a relic of the fire, which, Jeremiah predicted at Tahpanhes, the Lord of Hosts was to kindle "in the houses of the gods of Egypt" (Jeremiah 43:12).

Pharaoh Hophra, as Jeremiah prophesied (44:29), became the victim of a revolt and was finally strangled.

LITERATURE.

Flinders Petrie, History of Egypt, III, 344 f; Wiedemann, Geschichte von Alt-Aegypten, 190;; Flinders Petrie and J. H. Walker, Memphis, I, II ("The Palace of Apries"); Herodotus ii.161-69.

T. Nicol.

Strong's Hebrew
6548. Paroh Chophra -- an Eg. king
... king NASB Word Usage Pharaoh Hophra (1). Pharaoh-hophra. Of Egyptian derivation;
Paroh- Chophra, an Egyptian king -- Pharaoh-hophra. 6547, 6548. ...
/hebrew/6548.htm - 6k
Library

The Captivity.
... The counsellors who loved Egypt, however, persuaded him to rebel, as Pharaoh Hophra
was actually coming out to his assistance; and he put Jeremiah into prison ...
//christianbookshelf.org/yonge/the chosen people/lesson x the captivity.htm

To the End and After
... The intrigues of Egypt persisted, however, and, in 589 or 588, after the accession
of Pharaoh Hophra,(479) at last prevailed upon Judah. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/smith/jeremiah/lecture vi to the end.htm

Book 9 Footnotes
... [15] Herodotus says, this king of Egypt [Pharaoh Hophra, or Apries] was slain by
the Egyptians, as Jeremiah foretold his slaughter by his enemies, Jeremiah 44 ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/book 9 footnotes.htm

The Greek Versions as Aids to Biblical Study.
... compares Egypt. sut' a en pa-anch). Pharaoh-Hophra, p chphr, ho Ouaphre, Jeremiah
51.(xliv.) 30 (cf. WE Crum in Hastings, DB ii. p.413). ...
/.../chapter iv the greek versions.htm

Egypt
... His son Hophra or Apries had made a vain attempt to rescue Zedekiah. ... The dream of
an Asiatic empire was over, and the Pharaoh had more than enough to do to ...
/.../sayce/early israel and the surrounding nations/chapter v egypt.htm

Appendices
... Ra 610 3. Psamtik II.-Nefer-ab-Ra 594 4. Uah-ab-Ra (Apries or Hophra) Haa-ab ... of the
great king of the Hittites, Khata-sir, who were sent to Pharaoh to propose ...
/.../sayce/early israel and the surrounding nations/appendices.htm



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