New International Version
He answered, "Haven't you read what David did when he and his companions were hungry?
King James Bible
But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him;
Darby Bible Translation
But he said to them, Have ye not read what David did when he was hungry, and they that were with him?
World English Bible
But he said to them, "Haven't you read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him;
Young's Literal Translation
And he said to them, 'Did ye not read what David did, when he was hungry, himself and those with him --
Matthew 12:3 Parallel
CommentaryClarke's Commentary on the Bible
Have ye not read what David did - The original history is in 1 Samuel 21:1-6.
When he was an hungered - Here hearken to Kimchi, producing the opinion of the ancients concerning this story in these words: "Our rabbins of blessed memory say, that he gave him the shew-bread, etc. The interpretation also of the clause, Yea, though it were sanctified this day in the vessel, is this: It is a small thing to say, that it is lawful for us to eat These Loaves, taken from before the Lord, when we are hungry; for it would be lawful to eat this very loaf which is now set on, which is also sanctified in the vessel, (for the table sanctifieth), it would be lawful to eat even this, when another loaf is not present with you to give us, and we are so hunger-bitten. And a little after, There is nothing which may hinder taking care of life, beside idolatry, adultery, and murder. That is, a man, according to them, should do any thing but these in order to preserve life." See Lightfoot.
He entered into the house of God - Viz. the house of Ahimelech the priest, who dwelt at Nob, with whom the tabernacle then was, in which the Divine presence was manifested.
And did eat the shew - bread - Τους αρτους της προθεσεως - in Hebrew, לחם פנים lechem panim - bread of the presence, or faces, because this bread was to be set continually, לפני יהוה lipney Yehovah, before the face of Jehovah. See the notes on Exodus 25:23, Exodus 25:30.
"Since part of the frankincense put in the bread was to be burnt on the altar for a memorial, Leviticus 24:7, and since Aaron and his sons were to eat it in the holy place, it is evident that this bread typified Christ, first presented as a sacrifice to, or in the presence of, Jehovah, and then becoming spiritual food to such as, in and through him, are spiritual priests to God. See Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:6; also 1 Peter 2:5." Parkhurst.
Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
LibraryAn Attempt to Account for Jesus
'But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This man doth not cast out demons, but by Beelzebub, the prince of the demons.'--MATT. xii. 24. Mark's Gospel tells us that this astonishing explanation of Christ and His work was due to the ingenious malice of an ecclesiastical deputation, sent down from Jerusalem to prevent the simple folk in Galilee from being led away by this new Teacher. They must have been very hard put to it to explain undeniable but unwelcome facts, when they hazarded such a preposterous …
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture
'A Greater than Solomon'
What are Evidences of Backsliding in Heart.
Lesser and Fuller Forms.
1 Samuel 21:6
So the priest gave him the consecrated bread, since there was no bread there except the bread of the Presence that had been removed from before the LORD and replaced by hot bread on the day it was taken away.
When the Pharisees saw this, they said to him, "Look! Your disciples are doing what is unlawful on the Sabbath."
He entered the house of God, and he and his companions ate the consecrated bread--which was not lawful for them to do, but only for the priests.
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