Leviticus 11:3
Parallel Verses
New International Version
You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

King James Bible
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

Darby Bible Translation
Whatever hath cloven hoofs, and feet quite split open, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts -- that shall ye eat.

World English Bible
Whatever parts the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and chews the cud among the animals, that you may eat.

Young's Literal Translation
any dividing a hoof, and cleaving the cleft of the hoofs, bringing up the cud, among the beasts, it ye do eat.

Leviticus 11:3 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed - These two words mean the same thing - a divided hoof, such as that of the ox, where the hoof is divided into two toes, and each toe is cased with horn.

Cheweth the cud - Ruminates; casts up the grass, etc., which had been taken into the stomach for the purpose of mastication. Animals which chew the cud, or ruminate, are provided with two, three or four stomachs. The ox has four: in the first or largest, called the ventriculus or paunch, the food is collected without being masticated, the grass, etc., being received into it as the beast crops it from the earth. The food, by the force of the muscular coats of this stomach, and the liquors poured in, is sufficiently macerated; after which, formed into small balls, it is thrown up by the esophagus into the mouth, where it is made very small by mastication or chewing, and then sent down into the second stomach, into which the esophagus or gullet opens, as well as into the first, ending exactly where the two stomachs meet. This is what is termed chewing the cud. The second stomach, which is called the reticulum, honeycomb, bonnet, or king's hood, has a great number of small shallow cells on its inward surface, of a pentagonal or five-sided form, exactly like the cells in a honey-comb; in this the food is farther macerated, and then pushed onward into the third stomach, called the omasum or many-plies, because its inward surface is covered with a great number of thin membranous partitions. From this the food passes into the fourth stomach, called the abomasum, or rede. In this stomach it is digested, and from the digested mass the chyle is formed, which, being absorbed by the lacteal vessels, is afterwards thrown into the mass of blood, and becomes the principle of nutrition to all the solids and fluids of the body. The intention of rumination, or chewing the cud, seems to be, that the food may be sufficiently comminuted, that, being more fully acted on by the stomachs, it may afford the greatest possible portion of nutritive juices. The word cud is probably not originally Saxon, though found in that language in the same signification in which it is still used. Junius, with great show of probability, derives it from the Cambro-British chwyd, a vomit, as it is the ball of food vomited, or thrown up, from the first stomach or paunch through the esophagus into the mouth, which is called by this name. Those who prefer a Saxon derivation may have it in the verb whence our word chew; and so cud might be considered a contraction of chewed, but this is not so likely as the preceding.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge


Psalm 1:1 Blessed is the man that walks not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stands in the way of sinners...

Proverbs 9:6 Forsake the foolish, and live; and go in the way of understanding.

2 Corinthians 6:17 Why come out from among them, and be you separate, said the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you.


Deuteronomy 6:6,7 And these words, which I command you this day, shall be in your heart...

Deuteronomy 16:3 You shall eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shall you eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction...

Psalm 1:2 But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in his law does he meditate day and night.

Proverbs 2:1,2,10 My son, if you will receive my words, and hide my commandments with you...

Acts 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind...

1 Timothy 4:15 Meditate on these things; give yourself wholly to them; that your profiting may appear to all.


Of the laws relative to clean and unclean beasts, which are re- corded in this chapter and Deut. ch.14 the following may be found a useful abstract.

1. In regard to {quadrupeds}, all beasts that have their feet completely cloven, above as well as below, and at the same time chew the cud, are clean. Those which have neither, or indeed want one of these distinguishing marks, are unclean. This is a systematic division of quadrupeds so excellent, as never yet, after all the improvements in natural history, to have become obsolete, but, on the contrary, to be still considered as useful by the greatest masters of the science.

2. With regard to {fishes}, Moses has in like manner, made a very simple systematic distinction. All that have scales and fins are clean; all others unclean.

3. Of birds, he merely specifies certain sorts as forbidden, thereby permitting all others to be eaten

4. Insects, serpents, worms, etc. are prohibited; but with regard, however to those winged insects, which besides four walking legs, also have two longer springing legs. (Pedes saltatorii) Moses makes an exception, and under the denomination of locusts, declares them clean in all four stages of their existence. In Palestine, Arabia, and the adjoining countries, locusts are one of the most common articles of food, and people would be very ill of if they durst not eat them: For, when a swarm of them desolates the fields, they prove in some measure themselves an antidote to the famine which they occasion. They are not only eaten fresh, immediately on their appearance, but the people collect them, and know a method for preserving them for a long time for food, after they have dried them in an oven. --{Niebuhr's Description of Arabia} pp.


Eleventh Day. The Holy one of Israel.
I am the Lord that brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. I the Lord which make you holy, am holy.'--Lev. xi. 45, xxi. 8. 'I am the Lord Thy God, the Holy One of Israel, Thy Saviour. Thus saith the Lord, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: I am the Lord, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King.'--Isa. xliii. 3, 14, 15. In the book of Exodus we found God making provision for the Holiness of His people. In the holy
Andrew Murray—Holy in Christ

Fifth Day. Holiness and Redemption.
Sanctify unto me all the first-born.'--Ex. xiii. 2. 'All the first-born are mine; for on the day I smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt I sanctified unto me all the first-born in Israel: mine they shall be: I am the Lord.'--Num. iii. 13, viii. 17. 'For I am the Lord your God that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.'--Lev. xi. 45. 'I have redeemed thee; thou art mine.'--Isa. xliii. 1. At Horeb we saw how the
Andrew Murray—Holy in Christ

Cross References
Leviticus 11:2
"Say to the Israelites: 'Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:

Leviticus 11:4
"'There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:5
The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:6
The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:7
And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:26
"'Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean.

Deuteronomy 14:6
You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

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