Leviticus 11:3
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Whatever parts the hoof and is cloven-footed and chews the cud, among the animals, you may eat.

King James Bible
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

American Standard Version
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Whatsoever hath the hoof divided, and cheweth the cud among the beasts, you shall eat.

English Revised Version
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

Webster's Bible Translation
Whatever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

Leviticus 11:3 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

After the directions occasioned by this judgment of God, Moses reminded Aaron and his sons of the general laws concerning the consumption of the priests' portions of the sacrifices, and their relation to the existing circumstances: first of all (Leviticus 10:12, Leviticus 10:13), of the law relating to the eating of the meat-offering, which belonged to the priests after the azcarah had been lifted off (Leviticus 2:3; Leviticus 6:9-11), and then (Leviticus 10:14, Leviticus 10:15) of that relating to the wave-breast and heave-leg (Leviticus 7:32-34). By the minchah in Leviticus 10:12 we are to understand the meal and oil, which were offered with the burnt-offering of the nation (Leviticus 9:4 and Leviticus 9:7); and by the אשּׁים in Leviticus 10:12 and Leviticus 10:15, those portions of the burnt-offering, meat-offering, and peace-offering of the nation which were burned upon the altar (Leviticus 9:13, Leviticus 9:17, and Leviticus 9:20). He then looked for "the he-goat of the sin-offering," - i.e., the flesh of the goat which had been brought for a sin-offering (Leviticus 9:15), and which was to have been eaten by the priests in the holy place along with the sin-offerings, whose blood was not taken into the sanctuary (Leviticus 6:19, Leviticus 6:22); - "and, behold, it was burned" (שׂרף, 3 perf. Pual). Moses was angry at this, and reproved Eleazar and Ithamar, who had attended to the burning: "Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin-offering in a holy place?" he said; "for it is most holy, and He (Jehovah) hath given it you to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for it before Jehovah," as its blood had not been brought into the holy place (הוּבא construed as a passive with an accusative, as in Genesis 4:18, etc.). "To bear the iniquity" does not signify here, as in Leviticus 5:1, to bear and atone for the sin in its consequences, but, as in Exodus 28:38, to take the sin of another upon one's self, for the purpose of cancelling it, to make expiation for it. As, according to Exodus 28:38, the high priest was to appear before the Lord with the diadem upon his forehead, as the symbol of the holiness of his office, to cancel, as the mediator of the nation and by virtue of his official holiness, the sin which adhered to the holy gifts of the nation (see the note on this passage), so here it is stated with regard to the official eating of the most holy flesh of the sin-offering, which had been enjoined upon the priests, that they were thereby to bear the sin of the congregation, to make atonement for it. This effect or signification could only be ascribed to the eating, by its being regarded as an incorporation of the victim laden with sin, whereby the priests actually took away the sin by virtue of the holiness and sanctifying power belonging to their office, and not merely declared it removed, as Oehler explains the words (Herzog's Cycl. x. p. 649). Exodus 28:38 is decisive in opposition to the declaratory view, which does not embrace the meaning of the words, and is not applicable to the passage at all. "Incorporabant quasi peccatum populique reatum in se recipiebant" (Deyling observv. ss. i. 45, 2).

(Note: C. a Lapide has given this correct interpretation of the passage: "ut scilicet cum hostiis populi pro peccato simul etiam populi peccata in vos quasi recipiatis, ut illa expietis." There is no foundation for the objection offered by Oehler, that the actual removal of guilt and the atonement itself were effected by the offering of the blood. For it by no means follows from Leviticus 17:11, that the blood, as the soul of the sacrificial animal, covered or expiated the soul of the sinner, and that the removal and extinction of the sin had already taken place with the covering of the soul before the holy God, which involved the forgiveness of the sin and the reception of the sinner to mercy.)

Leviticus 11:3 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

parteth

Psalm 1:1 Blessed is the man that walks not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stands in the way of sinners...

Proverbs 9:6 Forsake the foolish, and live; and go in the way of understanding.

2 Corinthians 6:17 Why come out from among them, and be you separate, said the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you.

cheweth

Deuteronomy 6:6,7 And these words, which I command you this day, shall be in your heart...

Deuteronomy 16:3 You shall eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shall you eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction...

Psalm 1:2 But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in his law does he meditate day and night.

Proverbs 2:1,2,10 My son, if you will receive my words, and hide my commandments with you...

Acts 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind...

1 Timothy 4:15 Meditate on these things; give yourself wholly to them; that your profiting may appear to all.

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Of the laws relative to clean and unclean beasts, which are re- corded in this chapter and Deut. ch.14 the following may be found a useful abstract.

1. In regard to {quadrupeds}, all beasts that have their feet completely cloven, above as well as below, and at the same time chew the cud, are clean. Those which have neither, or indeed want one of these distinguishing marks, are unclean. This is a systematic division of quadrupeds so excellent, as never yet, after all the improvements in natural history, to have become obsolete, but, on the contrary, to be still considered as useful by the greatest masters of the science.

2. With regard to {fishes}, Moses has in like manner, made a very simple systematic distinction. All that have scales and fins are clean; all others unclean.

3. Of birds, he merely specifies certain sorts as forbidden, thereby permitting all others to be eaten

4. Insects, serpents, worms, etc. are prohibited; but with regard, however to those winged insects, which besides four walking legs, also have two longer springing legs. (Pedes saltatorii) Moses makes an exception, and under the denomination of locusts, declares them clean in all four stages of their existence. In Palestine, Arabia, and the adjoining countries, locusts are one of the most common articles of food, and people would be very ill of if they durst not eat them: For, when a swarm of them desolates the fields, they prove in some measure themselves an antidote to the famine which they occasion. They are not only eaten fresh, immediately on their appearance, but the people collect them, and know a method for preserving them for a long time for food, after they have dried them in an oven. --{Niebuhr's Description of Arabia} pp.

170-175.

Cross References
Leviticus 11:2
"Speak to the people of Israel, saying, These are the living things that you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth.

Leviticus 11:4
Nevertheless, among those that chew the cud or part the hoof, you shall not eat these: The camel, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you.

Leviticus 11:5
And the rock badger, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you.

Leviticus 11:6
And the hare, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you.

Leviticus 11:7
And the pig, because it parts the hoof and is cloven-footed but does not chew the cud, is unclean to you.

Leviticus 11:26
Every animal that parts the hoof but is not cloven-footed or does not chew the cud is unclean to you. Everyone who touches them shall be unclean.

Deuteronomy 14:6
Every animal that parts the hoof and has the hoof cloven in two and chews the cud, among the animals, you may eat.

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