Jonah 3:8
Parallel Verses
New International Version
But let people and animals be covered with sackcloth. Let everyone call urgently on God. Let them give up their evil ways and their violence.

King James Bible
But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.

Darby Bible Translation
and let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God; and let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.

World English Bible
but let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and animal, and let them cry mightily to God. Yes, let them turn everyone from his evil way, and from the violence that is in his hands.

Young's Literal Translation
and cover themselves with sackcloth let man and beast, and let them call unto God mightily, and let them turn back each from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.

Jonah 3:8 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Let man and beast be covered - This was done that every object which they beheld might deepen the impression already made, and cause them to mourn after a godly sort. Virgil tells us that the mourning for the death of Julius Caesar was so general, that the cattle neither ate nor drank: -

Non ulli pastos illis egere diebus

Frigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina: nulla neque amnem

Libavit quadrupes, nec graminis attigit herbam.

Ecclesiastes 5:24.

"The swains forgot their sheep, nor near the brink

Of running waters brought their herds to drink.

The thirsty cattle of themselves abstain'd,

From water, and their grassy fare disdain'd."

Dryden.

And that they sometimes changed: or reversed the harness and ornaments of cattle, as indicative of mourning, we have a proof in Virgil's description of the funeral procession in honor of Pallas, slain by Turnus, Aen. 11 ver. 89.

Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon

It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora.

"Stripp'd of his trappings, and his head declined,

continued...

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

cry.

Jonah 1:6,14 So the shipmaster came to him, and said to him, What mean you, O sleeper? arise, call on your God, if so be that God will think on us...

Psalm 130:1,2 Out of the depths have I cried to you, O LORD...

let.

Isaiah 1:16-19 Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before my eyes; cease to do evil...

Isaiah 55:6,7 Seek you the LORD while he may be found, call you on him while he is near...

Isaiah 58:6 Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free...

Ezekiel 18:21-24,27,28,30-32 But if the wicked will turn from all his sins that he has committed, and keep all my statutes, and do that which is lawful and right...

Ezekiel 33:11 Say to them, As I live, said the Lord GOD, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked...

Daniel 4:27 Why, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to you, and break off your sins by righteousness...

Matthew 3:8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance:

Acts 3:19 Repent you therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out...

Acts 26:20 But showed first to them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judaea, and then to the Gentiles...

the violence.

Isaiah 59:6 Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works: their works are works of iniquity...

Library
Threefold Repentance
'And the word of the Lord came unto Jonah the second time, saying, 2. Arise, go unto Nineveh, that great city, and preach unto it the preaching that I bid thee. 3. So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey. 4. And Jonah began to enter into the city a day's journey, and he cried, and said, Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall he overthrown. 5. So the people of Ninoveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

Whether it is Lawful for Religious to Wear Coarser Clothes than Others?
Objection 1: It would seem unlawful for religious to wear coarser clothes than others. For according to the Apostle (1 Thess. 5:22) we ought to "refrain from all appearance of evil." Now coarseness of clothes has an appearance of evil; for our Lord said (Mat. 7:15): "Beware of false prophets who come to you in the clothing of sheep": and a gloss on Apoc. 6:8, "Behold a pale horse," says: "The devil finding that he cannot succeed, neither by outward afflictions nor by manifest heresies, sends in advance
Saint Thomas Aquinas—Summa Theologica

Of a Private Fast.
That we may rightly perform a private fast, four things are to be observed:--First, The author; Secondly, The time and occasion; Thirdly, The manner; Fourthly, The ends of private fasting. 1. Of the Author. The first that ordained fasting was God himself in paradise; and it was the first law that God made, in commanding Adam to abstain from eating the forbidden fruit. God would not pronounce nor write his law without fasting (Lev. xxiii), and in his law commands all his people to fast. So does our
Lewis Bayly—The Practice of Piety

The Unchangeableness of God
The next attribute is God's unchangeableness. I am Jehovah, I change not.' Mal 3:3. I. God is unchangeable in his nature. II. In his decree. I. Unchangeable in his nature. 1. There is no eclipse of his brightness. 2. No period put to his being. [1] No eclipse of his brightness. His essence shines with a fixed lustre. With whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning.' James 1:17. Thou art the same.' Psa 102:27. All created things are full of vicissitudes. Princes and emperors are subject to
Thomas Watson—A Body of Divinity

Cross References
Revelation 11:3
And I will appoint my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth."

Job 16:17
yet my hands have been free of violence and my prayer is pure.

Job 36:10
He makes them listen to correction and commands them to repent of their evil.

Psalm 130:1
A song of ascents. Out of the depths I cry to you, LORD;

Isaiah 1:16
Wash and make yourselves clean. Take your evil deeds out of my sight; stop doing wrong.

Isaiah 55:6
Seek the LORD while he may be found; call on him while he is near.

Isaiah 55:7
Let the wicked forsake their ways and the unrighteous their thoughts. Let them turn to the LORD, and he will have mercy on them, and to our God, for he will freely pardon.

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