Exodus 28:4
Parallel Verses
New International Version
These are the garments they are to make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a woven tunic, a turban and a sash. They are to make these sacred garments for your brother Aaron and his sons, so they may serve me as priests.

King James Bible
And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

Darby Bible Translation
And these are the garments which they shall make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and a cloak, and a checkered vest, a turban, and a girdle; and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may serve me as priest.

World English Bible
These are the garments which they shall make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a coat of checker work, a turban, and a sash: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother, and his sons, that he may minister to me in the priest's office.

Young's Literal Translation
And these are the garments which they make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and an upper robe, and an embroidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle; yea, they have made holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons, for his being priest to Me.

Exodus 28:4 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Breastplate - חשן choshen. See Clarke on Exodus 25:7 (note).

Ephod - אפד. See Clarke's note on Exodus 25:7.

Robe - מעיל meil, from עלה alah, to go up, go upon; hence the meil may be considered as an upper coat, a surtout. It is described by Josephus as a garment that reaches down to the feet, not made of two distinct pieces, but was one entire long garment, woven throughout. This was immediately under the ephod. See Clarke on Exodus 28:31 (note), etc.

Broidered coat - כתנת תשבץ kethoneth, tashbets, what Parkhurst translates a close, strait coat or garment; according to Josephus, "a tunic circumscribing or closely encompassing the body, and having tight sleeves for the arms." This was immediately under the meil or robe, and answered the same purpose to the priests that our shirts do to us. See Clarke on Exodus 28:13 (note).

Mitre - מצנפת mitsnepheth. As this word comes from the root צנף tsanaph, to roll or wrap round, it evidently means that covering of the head so universal in the eastern countries which we call turban or turband, corrupted from the Persian doolbend, which signifies what encompasses and binds the head or body; and hence is applied, not only to this covering of the head, but to a sash in general. As the Persian word is compounded of dool, or dawal, a revolution, vicissitude, wheel, etc., and binden, to bind; it is very likely that the Hebrew words דור dur, to go round, and בנט benet, a band, may have been the original of doolbend and turband. It is sometimes called serbend, from ser, the head, and binden, to bind. The turban consists generally of two parts: the cap, which goes on the head; and the long sash of muslin, linen, or silk, that is wrapped round the head. These sashes are generally several yards in length.

A girdle - אבנט abnet, a belt or girdle; see before. This seems to have been the same kind of sash or girdle, so common in the eastern countries, that confined the loose garments about the waist; and in which their long skirts were tucked up when they were employed in work, or on a journey. After being tied round the waist, the two ends of it fell down before, to the skirts of their robes.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

a breastplate. Choshen, in Hebrew is used for the square breast-plate of the high priest, in which were set twelve precious stones, each being engraved with the name of one of the sons of Jacob

Exodus 28:15 And you shall make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod you shall make it; of gold, of blue...

Exodus 39:8-21 And he made the breastplate of cunning work, like the work of the ephod; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen...

Isaiah 59:17 For he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and an helmet of salvation on his head...

Ephesians 6:14 Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness;

1 Thessalonians 5:8 But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for an helmet, the hope of salvation.

Revelation 9:17 And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and brimstone...

ephod. The ephod seems to have been a short cloak, without sleeves

Exodus 28:6-14 And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work...

Exodus 39:2-5,21,22 And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen...

Leviticus 8:7,8 And he put on him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod on him...

1 Samuel 2:18 But Samuel ministered before the LORD, being a child, girded with a linen ephod.

1 Samuel 22:18 And the king said to Doeg, Turn you, and fall on the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell on the priests...

1 Samuel 23:6 And it came to pass, when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David to Keilah, that he came down with an ephod in his hand.

1 Samuel 30:7 And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray you, bring me here the ephod...

2 Samuel 6:14 And David danced before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod.

a robe. The word meil, from alah, to ascend, to up on, may be considered as an upper garment that goes up or over the rest, a surtout

Exodus 28:31-34 And you shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue...

Exodus 39:25,26 And they made bells of pure gold, and put the bells between the pomegranates on the hem of the robe...

broidered

Exodus 28:29,40 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment on his heart, when he goes in to the holy place...

Leviticus 8:7 And he put on him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod on him...

a mitre

Exodus 39:28 And a turban of fine linen, and goodly bonnets of fine linen, and linen breeches of fine twined linen,

Leviticus 8:9 And he put the turban on his head; also on the turban, even on his forefront, did he put the golden plate, the holy crown...

a girdle

Isaiah 11:5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

Library
Three Inscriptions with one Meaning
'Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it ... HOLINESS TO THE LORD.'--EXODUS xxviii. 36. 'In that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD.'--ZECH. xiv. 20. 'His name shall be in their foreheads.'--REV. xxii. 4. You will have perceived my purpose in putting these three widely separated texts together. They all speak of inscriptions, and they are all obviously connected with each other. The first of them comes from the ancient times of the institution
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

Edwards -- Spiritual Light
Jonathan Edwards, the New England divine and metaphysician, was born at East Windsor, Connecticut, in 1703. He was graduated early from Yale College, where he had given much attention to philosophy, became tutor of his college, and at nineteen began to preach. His voice and manner did not lend themselves readily to pulpit oratory, but his clear, logical, and intense presentation of the truth produced a profound and permanent effect upon his hearers. He wrote what were considered the most important
Grenville Kleiser—The world's great sermons, Volume 3

The Covenant of Grace
Q-20: DID GOD LEAVE ALL MANKIND TO PERISH 1N THE ESTATE OF SIN AND MISERY? A: No! He entered into a covenant of grace to deliver the elect out of that state, and to bring them into a state of grace by a Redeemer. 'I will make an everlasting covenant with you.' Isa 55:5. Man being by his fall plunged into a labyrinth of misery, and having no way left to recover himself, God was pleased to enter into a new covenant with him, and to restore him to life by a Redeemer. The great proposition I shall go
Thomas Watson—A Body of Divinity

The Earliest Christian Preaching
1. THUS far we have confined ourselves to the words of Jesus. The divine necessity of His death, indicated in the Old Testament and forming the basis of all His teaching regarding it, is the primary truth; the nature of that necessity begins to be revealed as the death is set in relation to the ransoming of many, and to the institution of a new covenant -- that is, a new religion, having as its fundamental blessing the forgiveness of sins. I do not think this view of our Lord's mind as to His own
James Denney—The Death of Christ

Cross References
Exodus 25:7
and onyx stones and other gems to be mounted on the ephod and breastpiece.

Exodus 28:15
"Fashion a breastpiece for making decisions--the work of skilled hands. Make it like the ephod: of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen.

Exodus 28:39
"Weave the tunic of fine linen and make the turban of fine linen. The sash is to be the work of an embroiderer.

Exodus 28:40
Make tunics, sashes and caps for Aaron's sons to give them dignity and honor.

Exodus 29:6
Put the turban on his head and attach the sacred emblem to the turban.

Leviticus 8:7
He put the tunic on Aaron, tied the sash around him, clothed him with the robe and put the ephod on him. He also fastened the ephod with a decorative waistband, which he tied around him.

Hosea 3:4
For the Israelites will live many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or sacred stones, without ephod or household gods.

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