Exodus 28:4
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
These are the garments that they shall make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a coat of checker work, a turban, and a sash. They shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother and his sons to serve me as priests.

King James Bible
And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

American Standard Version
And these are the garments which they shall make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a coat of checker work, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And these shall be the vestments that they shall make: A rational and an ephod, a tunick and a strait linen garment, a mitre and a girdle. They shall make the holy vestments for thy brother Aaron and his sons, that they may do the office of priesthood unto me.

English Revised Version
And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a coat of chequer work, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

Webster's Bible Translation
And these are the garments which they shall make; a breast-plate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a miter, and a girdle; and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister to me in the priest's office.

Exodus 28:4 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

"All the vessels of the dwelling in all the work thereof (i.e., all the tools needed for the tabernacle), and all its pegs, and all the pegs of the court, (shall be of) brass or copper." The vessels of the dwelling are not the things required for the performance of worship, but the tools used in setting up the tabernacle and taking it down again.

If we inquire still further into the design and meaning of the court, the erection of a court surrounding the dwelling on all four sides is to be traced to the same circumstance as that which rendered it necessary to divide the dwelling itself into two parts, viz., to the fact, that on account of the unholiness of the nation, it could not come directly into the presence of Jehovah, until the sin which separates unholy man from the holy God had been atoned for. Although, by virtue of their election as the children of Jehovah, or their adoption as the nation of God, it was intended that the Israelites should be received by the Lord into His house, and dwell as a son in his father's house; yet under the economy of the law, which only produced the knowledge of sin, uncleanness, and unholiness, their fellowship with Jehovah, the Holy One, could only be sustained through mediators appointed and sanctified by God: viz., at the institution of the covenant, through His servant Moses; and during the existence of this covenant, through the chosen priests of the family of Aaron. It was through them that the Lord was to be approached, and the nation to be brought near to Him. Every day, therefore, they entered the holy place of the dwelling, to offer to the Lord the sacrifices of prayer and the fruits of the people's earthly vocation. But even they were not allowed to go into the immediate presence of the holy God. The most holy place, where God was enthroned, was hidden from them by the curtain, and only once a year was the high priest permitted, as the head of the whole congregation, which was called to be the holy nation of God, to lift this curtain and appear before God with the atoning blood of the sacrifice and the cloud of incense (Leviticus 16). The access of the nation to its God was restricted to the court. There it could receive from the Lord, through the medium of the sacrifices which it offered upon the altar of burnt-offering, the expiation of its sins, His grace and blessing, and strength to live anew. Whilst the dwelling itself represented the house of God, the dwelling-place of Jehovah in the midst of His people (Exodus 23:19; Joshua 6:24; 1 Samuel 1:7, 1 Samuel 1:24, etc.), the palace of the God-King, in which the priestly nation drew near to Him (1 Samuel 1:9; 1 Samuel 3:3; Psalm 5:8; Psalm 26:4, Psalm 26:6); the court which surrounded the dwelling represented the kingdom of the God-King, the covenant land or dwelling-place of Israel in the kingdom of its God. In accordance with this purpose, the court was in the form of an oblong, to exhibit its character as part of the kingdom of God. But its pillars and hangings were only five cubits high, i.e., half the height of the dwelling, to set forth the character of incompleteness, or of the threshold to the sanctuary of God. All its vessels were of copper-brass, which, being allied to the earth in both colour and material, was a symbolical representation of the earthly side of the kingdom of God; whereas the silver of the capitals of the pillars, and of the hooks and rods which sustained the hangings, as well as the white colour of the byssus-hangings, might point to the holiness of this site for the kingdom of God. On the other hand, in the gilding of the capitals of the pillars at the entrance to the dwelling, and the brass of their sockets, we find gold and silver combined, to set forth the union of the court with the sanctuary, i.e., the union of the dwelling-place of Israel with the dwelling-place of its God, which is realized in the kingdom of God.

The design and significance of the court culminated in the altar of burnt-offering, the principal object in the court; and upon this the burnt-offerings and slain-offerings, in which the covenant nation consecrated itself as a possession to its God, were burnt. The heart of this altar was of earth or unhewn stones, having the character of earth, not only on account of its being appointed as the place of sacrifice and as the hearth for the offerings, but because the earth itself formed the real or material sphere for the kingdom of God in the Old Testament stage of its development. This heart of earth was elevated by the square copper covering into a vessel of the sanctuary, a place where Jehovah would record His name, and come to Israel and bless them (Exodus 20:24, cf. Exodus 29:42, Exodus 29:44), and was consecrated as a place of sacrifice, by means of which Israel could raise itself to the Lord, and ascend to Him in the sacrifice. And this significance of the altar culminated in its horns, upon which the blood of the sin-offering was smeared. Just as, in the case of the horned animals, their strength and beauty are concentrated in the horns, and the horn has become in consequence a symbol of strength, or of fulness of vital energy; so the significance of the altar as a place of the saving and life-giving power of God, which the Lord bestows upon His people in His kingdom, was concentrated in the horns of the altar.

Exodus 28:4 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

a breastplate. Choshen, in Hebrew is used for the square breast-plate of the high priest, in which were set twelve precious stones, each being engraved with the name of one of the sons of Jacob

Exodus 28:15 And you shall make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod you shall make it; of gold, of blue...

Exodus 39:8-21 And he made the breastplate of cunning work, like the work of the ephod; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen...

Isaiah 59:17 For he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and an helmet of salvation on his head...

Ephesians 6:14 Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness;

1 Thessalonians 5:8 But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for an helmet, the hope of salvation.

Revelation 9:17 And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and brimstone...

ephod. The ephod seems to have been a short cloak, without sleeves

Exodus 28:6-14 And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work...

Exodus 39:2-5,21,22 And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen...

Leviticus 8:7,8 And he put on him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod on him...

1 Samuel 2:18 But Samuel ministered before the LORD, being a child, girded with a linen ephod.

1 Samuel 22:18 And the king said to Doeg, Turn you, and fall on the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell on the priests...

1 Samuel 23:6 And it came to pass, when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David to Keilah, that he came down with an ephod in his hand.

1 Samuel 30:7 And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray you, bring me here the ephod...

2 Samuel 6:14 And David danced before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod.

a robe. The word meil, from alah, to ascend, to up on, may be considered as an upper garment that goes up or over the rest, a surtout

Exodus 28:31-34 And you shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue...

Exodus 39:25,26 And they made bells of pure gold, and put the bells between the pomegranates on the hem of the robe...

broidered

Exodus 28:29,40 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment on his heart, when he goes in to the holy place...

Leviticus 8:7 And he put on him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod on him...

a mitre

Exodus 39:28 And a turban of fine linen, and goodly bonnets of fine linen, and linen breeches of fine twined linen,

Leviticus 8:9 And he put the turban on his head; also on the turban, even on his forefront, did he put the golden plate, the holy crown...

a girdle

Isaiah 11:5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

Cross References
Exodus 25:7
onyx stones, and stones for setting, for the ephod and for the breastpiece.

Exodus 28:15
"You shall make a breastpiece of judgment, in skilled work. In the style of the ephod you shall make it--of gold, blue and purple and scarlet yarns, and fine twined linen shall you make it.

Exodus 28:39
"You shall weave the coat in checker work of fine linen, and you shall make a turban of fine linen, and you shall make a sash embroidered with needlework.

Exodus 28:40
"For Aaron's sons you shall make coats and sashes and caps. You shall make them for glory and beauty.

Exodus 29:6
And you shall set the turban on his head and put the holy crown on the turban.

Leviticus 8:7
And he put the coat on him and tied the sash around his waist and clothed him with the robe and put the ephod on him and tied the skillfully woven band of the ephod around him, binding it to him with the band.

Hosea 3:4
For the children of Israel shall dwell many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or pillar, without ephod or household gods.

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