Deuteronomy 25:9
Parallel Verses
New International Version
his brother's widow shall go up to him in the presence of the elders, take off one of his sandals, spit in his face and say, "This is what is done to the man who will not build up his brother's family line."

King James Bible
Then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, and shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto that man that will not build up his brother's house.

Darby Bible Translation
then shall his brother's wife come near to him before the eyes of the elders, and draw his sandal from his foot, and spit in his face, and shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto the man that will not build up his brother's house.

World English Bible
then his brother's wife shall come to him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say, "So shall it be done to the man who does not build up his brother's house."

Young's Literal Translation
'Then hath his brother's wife drawn nigh unto him, before the eyes of the elders, and drawn his shoe from off his foot, and spat in his face, and answered and said, Thus it is done to the man who doth not build up the house of his brother;

Deuteronomy 25:9 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

And loose his shoe - It is difficult to find the reason of these ceremonies of degradation. Perhaps the shoe was the emblem of power; and by stripping it off, deprivation of that power and authority was represented. Spitting in the face was a mark of the utmost ignominy; but the Jews, who are legitimate judges in this case, say that the spitting was not in his face, but before his face on the ground. And this is the way in which the Asiatics express their detestation of a person to the present day, as Niebuhr and other intelligent travelers assure us. It has been remarked that the prefix ב beth is seldom applied to פני peney; but when it is it signifies as well before as in the face. See Joshua 21:44; Joshua 23:9; Esther 9:2; and Ezekiel 42:12; which texts are supposed to be proofs in point. The act of spitting, whether in or before the face, marked the strong contempt the woman felt for the man who had slighted her. And it appears that the man was ever after disgraced in Israel; for so much is certainly implied in the saying, Deuteronomy 25:10 : And his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe loosed.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

loose his shoe Pulling off the shoe seems to express his being degraded to the situation of slaves, who generally went barefoot; and spitting in or rather before (biphney) his face, was a mark of the utmost ignominy.

Ruth 4:7,8 Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things...

Isaiah 20:2 At the same time spoke the LORD by Isaiah the son of Amoz, saying, Go and loose the sackcloth from off your loins...

Mark 1:7 And preached, saying, There comes one mightier than I after me, the lace of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose.

John 1:27 He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe's lace I am not worthy to unloose.


Numbers 12:14 And the LORD said to Moses, If her father had but spit in her face, should she not be ashamed seven days?...

Job 30:10 They abhor me, they flee far from me, and spare not to spit in my face.

Isaiah 50:6 I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting.

Matthew 26:67 Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and others smote him with the palms of their hands,

Matthew 27:30 And they spit on him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head.

Mark 10:34 And they shall mock him, and shall whip him, and shall spit on him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.

So shall

Genesis 38:8-10 And Judah said to Onan, Go in to your brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to your brother...

Ruth 4:10,11 Moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, have I purchased to be my wife, to raise up the name of the dead on his inheritance...

1 Samuel 2:30 Why the LORD God of Israel said, I said indeed that your house, and the house of your father, should walk before me for ever...

Therefore at that Time, when the Law Also...
27. Therefore at that time, when the Law also, following upon the days of the Patriarchs, [2010] pronounced accursed, whoso raised not up seed in Israel, even he, who could, put it not forth, but yet possessed it. But from the period that the fullness of time hath come, [2011] that it should be said, "Whoso can receive, let him receive," [2012] from that period even unto this present, and from henceforth even unto the end, whoso hath, worketh: whoso shall be unwilling to work, let him not falsely
St. Augustine—On the Good of Marriage

Genealogy According to Luke.
^C Luke III. 23-38. ^c 23 And Jesus himself [Luke has been speaking about John the Baptist, he now turns to speak of Jesus himself], when he began to teach, was about thirty years of age [the age when a Levite entered upon God's service--Num. iv. 46, 47], being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son [this may mean that Jesus was grandson of Heli, or that Joseph was counted as a son of Heli because he was his son-in-law] of Heli, 24 the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the
J. W. McGarvey—The Four-Fold Gospel

Owing to the comparatively loose nature of the connection between consecutive passages in the legislative section, it is difficult to present an adequate summary of the book of Deuteronomy. In the first section, i.-iv. 40, Moses, after reviewing the recent history of the people, and showing how it reveals Jehovah's love for Israel, earnestly urges upon them the duty of keeping His laws, reminding them of His spirituality and absoluteness. Then follows the appointment, iv. 41-43--here irrelevant (cf.
John Edgar McFadyen—Introduction to the Old Testament

Cross References
Numbers 12:14
The LORD replied to Moses, "If her father had spit in her face, would she not have been in disgrace for seven days? Confine her outside the camp for seven days; after that she can be brought back."

Deuteronomy 25:8
Then the elders of his town shall summon him and talk to him. If he persists in saying, "I do not want to marry her,"

Deuteronomy 25:10
That man's line shall be known in Israel as The Family of the Unsandaled.

Ruth 4:7
(Now in earlier times in Israel, for the redemption and transfer of property to become final, one party took off his sandal and gave it to the other. This was the method of legalizing transactions in Israel.)

Ruth 4:8
So the guardian-redeemer said to Boaz, "Buy it yourself." And he removed his sandal.

Job 30:10
They detest me and keep their distance; they do not hesitate to spit in my face.

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