Psalm 59:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; protect me from those who rise up against me;

King James Bible
To the chief Musician, Altaschith, Michtam of David; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him. Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God: defend me from them that rise up against me.

American Standard Version
Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God: Set me on high from them that rise up against me.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Unto the end, destroy not, for David for an inscription of It title, when Saul sent and watched his house to kill him. Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; and defend me from them that rise up against me.

English Revised Version
For the Chief Musician; set to Al-tashheth. A Psalm of David: Michtam: when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him. Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God: set me on high from them that rise up against me.

Webster's Bible Translation
To the chief Musician, Al-taschith, Michtam of David; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him. Deliver me from my enemies, O my God: defend me from them that rise up against me.

Psalm 59:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The verb הרס is used much in the same way in Psalm 58:7 as ἀράσσειν (e.g., Iliad, xiii. 577, ἀπὸ δὲ τρυφάλειαν ἄραξεν), which presents a similar onomatope. The form ימּאסוּ is, as in Job 7:5, equals ימּסּוּ. The Jewish expositors, less appropriately, compare צנאכם, Numbers 32:24, and בּזאוּ equals בּזזוּ, Isaiah 18:2, Isaiah 18:7; שׁאסיך, Chethb, Jeremiah 30:16, and ראמה, Zechariah 14:10, more nearly resemble it. The treading (bending) of the bow is here, as in Psalm 64:4, transferred to the arrows ( equals כּונן, Psalm 11:2): he bends and shoots off his arrows, they shall be as though cut off in the front, i.e., as inoperative as if they had no heads or points (כּמו as in Isaiah 26:18). In Psalm 58:9 follow two figures to which the apprecatory "let them become" is to be supplied. Or is it perhaps to be rendered: As a snail, which Thou causest to melt away, i.e., squashest with the foot (תּמס, as in Psalm 39:12, fut. Hiph. of מסה equals מסס), let him perish? The change of the number does not favour this; and according to the usage of the language, which is fond of construing הלך with gerunds and participles, and also with abstract nouns, e.g., הלך תּם, הלך קרי, the words תּמס יהלך belong together, and they are also accented accordingly: as a snail or slug which goes along in dissolution, goes on and dissolves as it goes (תּמס after the form תּבל form בּלל

(Note: In the Phoenician, the Cyprian copper mine Ταμασσός appears to have taken its name from תמס, liquefactio (Levy, Phnizische Studien, iii.7).)).

The snail has received its name from this apparent dissolving into slime. For שׁבּלוּל (with Dag. dirimens for שׁבלוּל) is the naked slimy snail or slug (Targum, according to ancient conception, זחיל תּבללא "the slimeworm"), from שׁבלל, to make wet, moist.

(Note: "God has created nothing without its use," says the Talmud, B. Shabbath 77b; "He has created the snail (שׁבלול לכתית) to heal bruises by laying it upon them:" cf. Genesis Rabba, ch. 51 init., where שׁבלול is explained by לימצא, סיליי, כיליי, κογχύλη, σέσιλος, limax. Abraham b. David of Fez, the contemporary of Saadia, has explained it in his Arabico-Hebrew Lexicon by אלחלזון, the slug. Nevertheless this is properly the name of the snail with a house (נרתיק), Talmudic חלּזון, and even at the present day in Syria and Palestine Arab. ḥlzûn (which is pronounced ḥalezôn); whereas שׁבלול, in conformity with the etymon and with the figure, is the naked snail or slug. The ancient versions perhaps failed to recognise this, because the slug is not very often to be seen in hot eastern countries; but שׁבלול in this signification can be looked upon as traditional. The rendering "a rain-brook or mountain-torrent (Arabic seil sâbil) which running runs away," would, to say nothing more, give us, as Rosenmller has already observed, a figure that has been made use of already in Psalm 58:8.)

In the second figure, the only sense in which נפל אשׁת belong together is "the untimely birth of a woman;" and rather than explain with the Talmud (B. Med katan 6b) and Targum (contrary to the accents): as an abortion, a mole,

(Note: The mole, which was thought to have no eyes, is actually called in post-biblical Hebrew אשׁת, plur. אישׁות (vid., Keelim xxi. 3).)

one would alter אשׁת into אשׁה. But this is not necessary, since the construct form אשׁת is found also in other instances (Deuteronomy 21:11; 1 Samuel 28:7) out of the genitival relation, in connection with a close coordinate construction. So here, where בּל־הזוּ שׁמשׁ, according to Job 3:16; Ecclesiastes 6:3-5, is an attributive clause to נפל אשׁת (the falling away of a woman equals abortions), which is used collectively (Ew. 176, b). The accentuation also harmonizes here with the syntactic relation of the words. In Psalm 58:10, אטד (plural in African, i.e., Punic, in Dioscorides atadi'n) is the rhamnus or buckthorn, which, like רתם, the broom, not only makes a cheerful crackling fire, but also produces an ash that retains the heat a long time, and is therefore very useful in cooking. The alternative כּמו - כּמו signifies sive, sive, whether the one or the other. חי is that which is living, fresh, viz., the fresh, raw meat still having the blood in it, the opposite of מבשּׁל (1 Samuel 2:15); חרון, a fierce heat or fire, here a boiling heat. There is no need to understand חרון metonymically, or perhaps as an adjective equals charrôn, of boiled meat: it is a statement of the condition. The suffix of ישׁערנּוּ, however, refers, as being neuter, to the whole cooking apparatus, and more especially to the contents of the pots. The rendering therefore is: whether raw or in a state of heat, i.e., of being cooked through, He (Jahve) carries it away as with a whirlwind. Hengstenberg rightly remarks, "To the raw meat correspond the immature plots, and to the cooked the mature ones." To us, who regard the Psalm as belonging to the time of Absalom, and not, like Hengstenberg, to the time of Saul, the meat in the pots is the new kingship of Absalom. The greater the self-renunciation with which David at that time looked on at the ripening revolt, disclaiming all action of his own, the stronger the confidence with which he expected the righteous interposition of God that did actually follow, but (as he here supposes possible) not until the meat in the pot was almost done through; yet, on the other side, so quickly, that the pots had scarcely felt the crackling heat which should fully cook the meat.

Psalm 59:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

A.M.

2942 B.C.

1062 (title.) Al-tas-chith. or, destroy not. A golden Psalm.

Psalm 57:1 Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me: for my soul trusts in you: yes, in the shadow of your wings will I make my refuge...

Psalm 58:1 Do you indeed speak righteousness, O congregation? do you judge uprightly, O you sons of men?

Michtam. The seven poems of the celebrated Arabian poets who flourished before the time of Mohammed, called Moallakat, from being suspended on the walls of the temple of Mecca, were also called Modhabat, `golden' because they were written in [letters of gold] on the papyrus; and probably this is another reason why the six poems of David were called [golden]

when

Judges 16:2,3 And it was told the Gazites, saying, Samson is come here. And they compassed him in...

1 Samuel 19:11 Saul also sent messengers to David's house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David's wife told him, saying...

2 Corinthians 11:32,33 In Damascus the governor under Aretas the king kept the city of the Damascenes with a garrison, desirous to apprehend me...

Deliver

Psalm 7:1,2 O LORD my God, in you do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me...

Psalm 18:48 He delivers me from my enemies: yes, you lift me up above those that rise up against me: you have delivered me from the violent man.

Psalm 71:4 Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and cruel man.

Psalm 143:12 And of your mercy cut off my enemies, and destroy all them that afflict my soul: for I am your servant.

Luke 1:74,75 That he would grant to us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear...

2 Timothy 4:17,18 Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known...

defend me [heb.] set me on high

Psalm 12:5 For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, now will I arise, said the LORD...

Psalm 91:14 Because he has set his love on me, therefore will I deliver him: I will set him on high, because he has known my name.

Isaiah 33:16 He shall dwell on high: his place of defense shall be the munitions of rocks: bread shall be given him; his waters shall be sure.

Cross References
Genesis 32:11
Please deliver me from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for I fear him, that he may come and attack me, the mothers with the children.

1 Samuel 19:11
Saul sent messengers to David's house to watch him, that he might kill him in the morning. But Michal, David's wife, told him, "If you do not escape with your life tonight, tomorrow you will be killed."

Psalm 18:17
He rescued me from my strong enemy and from those who hated me, for they were too mighty for me.

Psalm 18:48
who rescued me from my enemies; yes, you exalted me above those who rose against me; you delivered me from the man of violence.

Psalm 20:1
May the LORD answer you in the day of trouble! May the name of the God of Jacob protect you!

Psalm 69:29
But I am afflicted and in pain; let your salvation, O God, set me on high!

Psalm 91:14
"Because he holds fast to me in love, I will deliver him; I will protect him, because he knows my name.

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