Exodus 3:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Now Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led his flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God.

King James Bible
Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.

American Standard Version
Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the back of the wilderness, and came to the mountain of God, unto Horeb.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Now Moses fed the sheep of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Madian: and he drove the flock to the inner parts of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, Horeb.

English Revised Version
Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the back of the wilderness, and came to the mountain of God, unto Horeb.

Webster's Bible Translation
Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.

Exodus 3:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Here Moses secured for himself a hospitable reception from a priest of Midian, and a home at his house, by doing as Jacob had formerly done (Genesis 29:10), viz., helping his daughters to water their father's sheep, and protecting them against the other shepherds. - On the form יושׁען for יושׁען vid., Genesis 19:19; and for the masculine suffixes to יגרשׁוּם and צאנם, Genesis 31:9. תּדלנה for תּדלינה, as in Job 5:12, cf. Ewald, 198a. - The flock of this priest consisted of nothing but צאן, i.e., sheep and goats (vid., Exodus 3:1). Even now there are no oxen reared upon the peninsula of Sinai, as there is not sufficient pasturage or water to be found. For the same reason there are no horses kept there, but only camels and asses (cf. Seetzen, R. iii. 100; Wellsted, R. in Arab. ii. p. 66). In Exodus 2:18 the priest is called Reguel, in Exodus 3:1 Jethro. This title, "the priest of Midian," shows that he was the spiritual head of the branch of the Midianites located there, but hardly that he was the prince or temporal head as well, like Melchizedek, as the Targumists have indicated by רבא, and as Artapanus and the poet Ezekiel distinctly affirm. The other shepherds would hardly have treated the daughters of the Emir in the manner described in Exodus 2:17. The name רעוּאל (Reguel, friend of God) indicates that this priest served the old Semitic God El (אל). This Reguel, who gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses, was unquestionably the same person as Jethro (יתרו) the חתן of Moses and priest of Midian (Exodus 3:1). Now, as Reguel's son Chobab is called Moses' חתן in Numbers 10:29 (cf. Judges 4:11), the Targumists and others supposed Reguel to be the grandfather of Zipporah, in which case אב would mean the grandfather in Exodus 2:18, and בּת the granddaughter in Exodus 2:21. This hypothesis would undoubtedly be admissible, if it were probable on other grounds. But as a comparison of Numbers 10:29 with Exodus 18 does not necessarily prove that Chobab and Jethro were the same persons, whilst Exodus 18:27 seems to lead to the very opposite conclusion, and התן, like the Greek γαμβρός, may be used for both father-in-law and brother-in-law, it would probably be more correct to regard Chobab as Moses' brother-in-law, Reguel as the proper name of his father-in-law, and Jethro, for which Jether (praestantia) is substituted in Exodus 4:18, as either a title, or the surname which showed the rank of Reguel in his tribe, like the Arabic Imam, i.e., praepositus, spec. sacrorum antistes. Ranke's opinion, that Jethro and Chobab were both of them sons of Reguel and brothers-in-law of Moses, is obviously untenable, if only on the ground that according to the analogy of Numbers 10:29 the epithet "son of Reguel" would not be omitted in Exodus 3:1.

Exodus 3:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

A.M.

2513. B.C.

1491. Kept.

Psalm 78:70-72 He chose David also his servant, and took him from the sheepfolds...

Amos 1:1 The words of Amos, who was among the herdsmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah...

Amos 7:14,15 Then answered Amos, and said to Amaziah, I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son; but I was an herdsman...

Matthew 4:18,19 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brothers, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea...

Luke 2:8 And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.

his father.

Exodus 2:16,21 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock...

Exodus 18:1-6 When Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father in law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people...

Numbers 10:29 And Moses said to Hobab, the son of Raguel the Midianite, Moses' father in law, We are journeying to the place of which the LORD said...

Judges 4:11 Now Heber the Kenite, which was of the children of Hobab the father in law of Moses, had severed himself from the Kenites...

the mountain.

Exodus 3:5 And he said, Draw not near here: put off your shoes from off your feet, for the place where on you stand is holy ground.

Exodus 18:5 And Jethro, Moses' father in law, came with his sons and his wife to Moses into the wilderness, where he encamped at the mount of God:

Exodus 19:3,11 And Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shall you say to the house of Jacob...

Exodus 24:15-17 And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount...

1 Kings 19:8 And he arose, and did eat and drink, and went in the strength of that meat forty days and forty nights to Horeb the mount of God.

Horeb.

Exodus 17:6 Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock in Horeb; and you shall smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it...

Deuteronomy 1:6 The LORD our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, You have dwelled long enough in this mount:

Deuteronomy 4:10 Specially the day that you stood before the LORD your God in Horeb, when the LORD said to me, Gather me the people together...

Psalm 106:19 They made a calf in Horeb, and worshipped the molten image.

Malachi 4:4 Remember you the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded to him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.

Cross References
Acts 7:30
"Now when forty years had passed, an angel appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, in a flame of fire in a bush.

Exodus 2:16
Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came and drew water and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.

Exodus 2:18
When they came home to their father Reuel, he said, "How is it that you have come home so soon today?"

Exodus 3:12
He said, "But I will be with you, and this shall be the sign for you, that I have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain."

Exodus 4:18
Moses went back to Jethro his father-in-law and said to him, "Please let me go back to my brothers in Egypt to see whether they are still alive." And Jethro said to Moses, "Go in peace."

Exodus 4:27
The LORD said to Aaron, "Go into the wilderness to meet Moses." So he went and met him at the mountain of God and kissed him.

Exodus 17:6
Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb, and you shall strike the rock, and water shall come out of it, and the people will drink." And Moses did so, in the sight of the elders of Israel.

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