Vincent's Word Studies
Moreover, brethren, we do you to wit of the grace of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia;
We do you to wit (γνωρίζομεν)
An obsolete, though correct rendering. Do is used in the sense of cause or make, as Chaucer:
"She that doth me all this woe endure."
To wit is to know: Anglo-Saxon, witan; German, wissen; English, wit. So "Legend of King Arthur:" "Now go thou and do me to wit (make me to know) what betokeneth that noise in the field." Rev., we make known.
Trial of affliction (δοκιμῇ θλίψεως)
Rev., better, proof. See on experience, Romans 5:4. In much affliction, which tried and proved their christian character, their joy and liberality abounded.
Deep (κατὰ βάθους)
An adverbial expression: their poverty which went down to the depths.
Or singleness. See on simplicity, Romans 12:8. It is better to throw the verse into two parallel clauses, instead of making abundance of joy and deep poverty the joint subject of abounded. Render: How that in much proof of affliction was the abundance of their joy, and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches, etc.
How that in a great trial of affliction the abundance of their joy and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches of their liberality.
For to their power, I bear record, yea, and beyond their power they were willing of themselves;
They were willing (αὐθαίρετοι)
The adjective stands alone. Only here and 2 Corinthians 8:17. Lit., self-chosen, and so Rev., of their own accord.
Praying us with much intreaty that we would receive the gift, and take upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints.
Praying us - that we would receive the gift and take upon us the fellowship (δεόμενοι ἡμῶν τὴν χάριν καὶ τὴν κοινωνίαν)
Rev., beseeching us, etc., in regard of this grace and the fellowship in the ministering. The Greek reads simply, praying us for the favor and the fellowship of the ministry. The renderings of both A.V. and Rev. are clumsy. Paul means that they earnestly besought him as a favor that they might have a share in ministering to the poor saints. Χάρις means grace, gift, and favor. Here the last.
And this they did, not as we hoped, but first gave their own selves to the Lord, and unto us by the will of God.
As we hoped (καθὼς ἠλπίσαμεν)
Better, expected. They took part in this contribution in a manner beyond our expectation. Supply, as A.V., this they did, or, Rev., and this.
Their own selves
Their liberality began in self-surrender to God and to the apostles as His agents: to us by the will of God.
Insomuch that we desired Titus, that as he had begun, so he would also finish in you the same grace also.
Had begun (προενήρξατο)
Only here and 2 Corinthians 8:10. Rev., giving the force of πρό before, had made a beginning before: on his first visit to Corinth.
Complete - this grace also (ἐπιτελέσῃ καὶ τὴν χάριν ταύτην).
Should complete among you the act of love (χάριν), the contribution already begun, in addition to whatever else He has yet to complete among you (καὶ also).
Therefore, as ye abound in every thing, in faith, and utterance, and knowledge, and in all diligence, and in your love to us, see that ye abound in this grace also.
I speak not by commandment, but by occasion of the forwardness of others, and to prove the sincerity of your love.
Used by Paul only. Contracted from γενήσιος legitimately born: hence genuine. Paul calls Timothy his lawful son in the faith (1 Timothy 1:2). The kindred adverb γνησίως sincerely (A.V. naturally), occurs once, Philippians 2:20. See note.
For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich.
He became poor (ἐπτώχευσεν)
Only here in the New Testament. Primarily of abject poverty, beggary (see on Matthew 5:3), though used of poverty generally. "Became poor" is correct, though some render "was poor," and explain that Christ was both rich and poor simultaneously; combining divine power and excellence with human weakness and suffering. But this idea is foreign to the general drift of the passage. The other explanation falls in better with the key-note - an act of self-devotion - in 2 Corinthians 8:5. The aorist tense denotes the entrance into the condition of poverty, and the whole accords with the magnificent passage, Philippians 2:6-8. Stanley has some interesting remarks on the influence of this passage in giving rise to the orders of mendicant friars. See Dante, "Paradiso," xi., 40-139; xii., 130 sqq.
And herein I give my advice: for this is expedient for you, who have begun before, not only to do, but also to be forward a year ago.
Now therefore perform the doing of it; that as there was a readiness to will, so there may be a performance also out of that which ye have.
Out of that which ye have (ἐκ τοῦ ἔχειν)
Wrong. Meyer justly remarks that it would be an indelicate compliment to the inclination of the readers, that it had originated from their possession. Render, according to your ability; better than Rev. out of your ability.
For if there be first a willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man hath, and not according to that he hath not.
If there be first a willing mind (εἰ ἡ προθυμία προκειται)
The error of the A.V. consists in regarding πρό in πρόκειται as indicating priority in time; be first; whereas it signifies position, before one; as "the hope, or the race, or the joy which is set before us." Hebrews 6:18; Hebrews 12:1, Hebrews 12:2; or "the example which is set forth," Jde 1:7. Hence Rev., correctly, if the readiness is there.
For I mean not that other men be eased, and ye burdened:
But by an equality, that now at this time your abundance may be a supply for their want, that their abundance also may be a supply for your want: that there may be equality:
By an equality (ἐξ ἰσότητος)
Ἑξ as in 2 Corinthians 8:11, according to. I speak on the principle that your abundance should go to equalize the difference created by their want.
As it is written, He that had gathered much had nothing over; and he that had gathered little had no lack.
But thanks be to God, which put the same earnest care into the heart of Titus for you.
For indeed he accepted the exhortation; but being more forward, of his own accord he went unto you.
And we have sent with him the brother, whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches;
The brother whose praise is in the Gospel
Is should be joined with throughout all the churches; as Rev., whose praise in the Gospel is spread throughout, etc. The person referred to has been variously identified with Titus' brother, Barnabas, Mark, Luke, and Epaenetus, mentioned in Romans 16:5. The reference to Epaenetus has been urged on the ground of a supposed play upon the word praise, epainos; Epaenetus meaning praiseworthy; and the parallel is cited in the case of Onesimus profitable, of whom Paul says that he will henceforth be useful, Plm 1:11.
And not that only, but who was also chosen of the churches to travel with us with this grace, which is administered by us to the glory of the same Lord, and declaration of your ready mind:
With this grace (ἐν τῇ χάριτι ταύτῃ)
An obscure rendering, not much bettered by Rev. Grace is ambiguous. The reference is, of course, to the contribution as a work of love; χάρις being used in the sense of benefaction or bounty. Paul says that the brother was appointed as his fellow-traveller in the matter of this bounty; in the prosecution of this kindly act. For appointed, see on Acts 14:23; see on Acts 10:41.
Avoiding this, that no man should blame us in this abundance which is administered by us:
Avoiding this (στελλόμενοι τοῦτο)
The verb, which occurs only here and 2 Thessalonians 3:6, means to arrange or provide for. As preparation involves a getting together of things, it passes into the meaning of collect, gather: then contract, as the furling of sails; so, to draw back, draw one's self away, as 2 Thessalonians 3:6. Connect with we have sent, 2 Corinthians 8:18. Compare 2 Corinthians 12:17, 2 Corinthians 12:18, where it appears that he had been charged with collecting money for his own purposes.
Only here in the New Testament. Lit., thickness, and so, of the vigor or strength of the human body or of plants. Thus Hesiod speaks of the ears of corn nodding in their thickness. Herodotus: "When the harvest was ripe or full grown, (ἅδρος), he (Alyattes) marched his army into Milesia" (i. 17). Homer of Patroclus: "His soul departed, leaving behind his strength (ἁδροτῆτα," "Iliad," 16. 857). Herodotus uses it of thickly-falling snow (iv. 31). In the Septuagint it is used of the rich or great, 1 Kings 1:9, princes (A.V., men of Judah); 2 Kings 10:6, great men. The A.V. abundance is better than Rev. bounty, which, though properly implying abundance, is currently taken as synonymous with gift. The reference is to the large contribution.
Providing for honest things, not only in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men.
We take thought (προνοούμενοι)
And we have sent with them our brother, whom we have oftentimes proved diligent in many things, but now much more diligent, upon the great confidence which I have in you.
Whether any do inquire of Titus, he is my partner and fellowhelper concerning you: or our brethren be inquired of, they are the messengers of the churches, and the glory of Christ.
Wherefore shew ye to them, and before the churches, the proof of your love, and of our boasting on your behalf.