The king's favor is toward a wise servant: but his wrath is against him that causes shame.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Proverbs 14:35. The king’s favour is toward a wise servant — He will respect and prefer those who behave themselves wisely and virtuously, whatever enemies they may have that seek to undermine them. This Solomon was determined to do. He was resolved that no man’s services should be neglected to please a party, or a favourite. But his wrath is against him that causeth shame — He will displace and banish from the court those who are selfish and false, who betray their trust, oppress the poor, sow the seeds of discord in the country, and thus cause shame both to themselves, for their foolish and improper management of the king’s affairs, and to the king, who made so foolish a choice of servants. Leviticus 20:17. Its more usual meaning is "mercy," "piety;" hence, some have attached to the word rendered "sin" the sense of "sin-offering," and so get the maxim "piety is an atonement for the people."
causeth shame—(Pr 10:5; 12:4) acts basely.Luke 12:42;
but his wrath is against him that causeth shame; who neglects his business, or does it foolishly; in such a manner as his prince is ashamed of him, and which brings shame and disgrace to himself; all which provokes the anger of his master, who discharges him from his service, and this fixes a mark of infamy upon him; see Luke 12:45.The king's favour is toward a wise servant: but his wrath is against him that causeth shame.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)35. causeth shame] Or, doeth shamefully, R.V. marg. Comp. Proverbs 10:5.Verse 35. - The king's favour is toward a wise servant; servant that dealeth wisely (Revised Version). Thus Joseph was advanced to the highest post in Egypt, owing to the wisdom which he displayed; so, too, in the case of Daniel (comp. Matthew 24:45, 47). But his wrath is against him that causeth shame; literally, he that doeth shamefully shall be (the object of) his wrath. The Vulgate translates, Iracundiam ejus inutilis sustinebit; the Septuagint makes the second clause parallel to the first, "An intelligent servant is acceptable to the king, and by his expertness (εὐτοροφίᾳ) he removeth disgrace." Then is added, before the first verse of the next chapter, a paragraph which looks like an explanation of the present clause, or an introduction to ver. 1 of ch. 15.: "Anger destroyeth even the prudent."
But he that is easily excited carries off folly.
ארך אפּים (constr. of ארך) is he who puts off anger long, viz., the outbreak of anger, האריך, Proverbs 19:11, i.e., lets it not come in, but shuts it out long (μακρόθυμος equals βραδὺς εἰς ὀργήν, James 1:19); and קצר־רוּח, he who in his spirit and temper, viz., as regards anger (for רוּח denotes also the breathing out and snorting, Isaiah 25:4; Isaiah 33:11), is short, i.e., (since shortness of time is meant) is rash and suddenly (cf. quick to anger, praeceps in iram, 17a) breaks out with it, not ὀλιγόψυχος (but here ὀξύθυμος), as the lxx translate 17a. The former, who knows how to control his affections, shows himself herein as "great in understanding" (cf. 2 Samuel 23:20), or as a "man of great understanding" (Lat. multus prudenti); the contrary is he who suffers himself to be impelled by his affections into hasty, inconsiderate action, which is here expressed more actively by מרים אוּלת. Does this mean that he bears folly to the view (Luther, Umbreit, Bertheau, Elster, and others)? But for that idea the Mishle style has other expressions, Proverbs 12:23; Proverbs 13:16; Proverbs 15:2, cf. Proverbs 14:17. Or does it mean that he makes folly high, i.e., shows himself highly foolish (lxx, Syr., Targum, Fleischer, and others)? But that would be expressed rather by הגדּיל or הרבּה. Or is it he heightens folly (Lwenstein, Hitzig)? But the remark that the angry ebullition is itself a gradual heightening of the foolish nature of such an one is not suitable, for the choleric man, who lets the evenness of his disposition be interrupted by a breaking forth of anger, is by no means also in himself a fool. Rashi is right when he says, מפרישה לחלקו, i.e., (to which also Fleischer gives the preference) aufert pro portione sua stultitiam. The only appropriate parallel according to which it is to be explained, is Proverbs 3:35. But not as Ewald: he lifts up folly, which lies as it were before his feet on his life's path; but: he takes off folly, in the sense of Leviticus 6:8, i.e., he carries off folly, receives a portion of folly; for as to others, so also to himself, when he returns to calm blood, that which he did in his rage must appear as folly and madness.
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