Joshua 18:10
And Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before the LORD: and there Joshua divided the land to the children of Israel according to their divisions.
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18:2-10 After a year or more, Joshua blamed their slackness, and told them how to proceed. God, by his grace, has given us a title to a good land, the heavenly Canaan, but we are slack to take possession of it; we enter not into that rest, as we might by faith, and hope, and holy joy. How long shall it be thus with us? How long shall we thus stand in our own light, and forsake our own mercies for lying vanities? Joshua stirs the Israelites up to take possession of their lots. He is ready to do his part, if they will do theirs.Cast lots - See the Joshua 14:2 note. Jos 18:10. Divided by Lot.

10. Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before the Lord—before the tabernacle, where the divine presence was manifested, and which associated with the lot the idea of divine sanction.

No text from Poole on this verse. And Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before the Lord,.... For the seven tribes, as he had for the two tribes and a half at Gilgal; of the manner of casting lots; see Gill on Numbers 26:55,

and there Joshua divided the land unto the children of Israel according to their division: the land that was divided into seven parts, he distributed to the seven tribes, as the lot came up for them, and then divided these several parts according to the families and households in each tribe.

And Joshua {h} cast lots for them in Shiloh before the LORD: and there Joshua divided the land unto the children of Israel according to their divisions.

(h) That everyone should be content with God's appointment.

10. And Joshua cast lots] After their return the Hebrew leader proceeded to a formal apportionment of the land by the sacred lot. This mode of assignment, it has been remarked, “places the conquest of Palestine, even in that remote and barbarous age, in a favourable contrast with the arbitrary caprice, by which the lands of England were granted away to the Norman chiefs.” Stanley’s Lectures, i. p. 265.

in Shiloh] Shiloh was appropriate, we have already seen, from its central situation, for the site of the Tabernacle and this apportionment of the tribes. But it has been noticed that it was appropriate also from its name, “which recalled rest (Shiloh = rest), and the promised Rest-giver” (Genesis 49:10).Verse 10. - Cast lots. Here, and in ver. 8, yet another phrase is used to describe the casting of the lots. But, for the reasons explained in Joshua 14:1, these tribes showed themselves "slack to go to possess the land which the Lord had given them," i.e., not merely to conquer it, but to have it divided by lot, and to enter in and take possession. Joshua charged them with this, and directed them to appoint three men for each of the seven tribes, that they might be sent out to go through the land, and describe it according to the measure of their inheritance. "According to their inheritance," i.e., with special reference to the fact that seven tribes were to receive it for their inheritance. The description was not a formal measurement, although the art of surveying was well known in Egypt in ancient times, and was regularly carried out after the annual inundations of the Nile (Herod. ii. 109; Strabo, xvii. 787; Diod. Sic. i. 69); so that the Israelites might have learned it there. But כּתב does not mean to measure; and it was not a formal measurement that was required, for the purpose of dividing the land that yet remained into seven districts, since the tribes differed in numerical strength, and therefore the boundaries of the territory assigned them could not be settled till after the lots had been cast. The meaning of the word is to describe; and according to Joshua 18:9, it was chiefly to the towns that reference was made: so that the description required by Joshua in all probability consisted simply in the preparation of lists of the towns in the different parts of the land, with an account of their size and character; also with "notices of the quality and condition of the soil; what lands were fertile, and what they produced; where the country was mountainous, and where it was level; which lands were well watered, and which were dry; and any other things that would indicate the character of the soil, and facilitate a comparison between the different parts of the land" (Rosenmller). The reasons which induced Joshua to take steps for the first time now for securing a survey of the land, are given in Joshua 14:1. The men chosen for the purpose were able to carry out their task without receiving any hindrance from the Canaanites. For whilst the latter were crushed, if not exterminated, by the victories which the Israelites had gained, it was not necessary for the twenty-one Israelitish men to penetrate into every corner of the land, and every town that was still inhabited by the Canaanites, in order to accomplish their end.
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