2 Samuel 23:25
Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(25) Shammah the Harodite.—In 1Chronicles 11:27 Shammoth the Harorite. He may be the same with “Shamhuth the Izrahite,” captain of the fifth division of the army (1Chronicles 27:8). The next name is omitted in Chronicles.

2 Samuel 23:25. Shammah the Harodite — In 1 Chronicles 11:27, he is called, Shammoth the Harorite, the same names of persons or places being differently pronounced according to the different dialects of divers places or ages. They that compare this catalogue with that in 1 Chronicles 11., will observe more names mentioned there than are found here. For the author of it reckons up and records the names of all the chief commanders in the army, though they were not in themselves heroical persons. But here the sacred writer only numbers those who were of themselves great heroes, not noticing the great commanders in the army who were not so.

23:8-39 David once earnestly longed for the water at the well of Bethlehem. It seems to be an instance of weakness. He was thirsty; with the water of that well he had often refreshed himself when a youth, and it was without due thought that he desired it. Were his valiant men so forward to expose themselves, upon the least hint of their prince's mind, and so eager to please him, and shall not we long to approve ourselves to our Lord Jesus, by ready compliance with his will, as shown us by his word, Spirit, and providence? But David poured out the water as a drink-offering to the Lord. Thus he would cross his own foolish fancy, and punish himself for indulging it, and show that he had sober thoughts to correct his rash ones, and knew how to deny himself. Did David look upon that water as very precious which was got at the hazard of these men's blood, and shall not we much more value those benefits for purchasing which our blessed Saviour shed his blood? Let all beware of neglecting so great salvation.etc. The early death of Asahel 2 Samuel 2:32 would make it very likely that his place in the 30 would be filled up, and so easily account for the number 31 in the list. Compare throughout the list in 1 Chronicles 11. 19-39. the first three—The mighty men or champions in David's military staff were divided into three classes—the highest, Jashobeam, Eleazar, and Shammah; the second class, Abishai, Benaiah, and Asahel; and the third class, the thirty, of which Asahel was the chief. There are thirty-one mentioned in the list, including Asahel; and these added to the two superior orders make thirty-seven. Two of them, we know, were already dead; namely, Asahel [2Sa 3:30] and Uriah [2Sa 11:17]; and if the dead, at the drawing up of the list, amounted to seven, then we might suppose a legion of honor, consisting of the definite number thirty, where the vacancies, when they occurred, were replaced by fresh appointments. In 1 Chronicles 11:27,

Shammoth the Harorite; concerning which and such-like alterations, and other changes of the names, which will be observed by comparing this catalogue with that, it will be sufficient to suggest,

1. That the same names of persons or places are differently pronounced, according to the different dialects used by men of divers places or ages.

2. That one man had oft two names.

3. That David had more worthies than those here mentioned; and as some of these were slain in the former part of David’s reign, as Asahel was; so others came up in their steads; and some were added to this number, as appears from 1Ch 11, where they are named, but not numbered, as they were here; and where there is a greater number than is here expressed.

Shammah the Harodite,.... Called Shammah the Harorite in 1 Chronicles 11:27; by a change of the letters "R" and "D", which is frequent:

Elika the Harodite; or who was of Harod, as the Targum; these both were from one place: mention is made of the well of Harod, Judges 7:1.

Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite,
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
25. Shammah the Harodite] Of Harod, perhaps the place mentioned in Jdg 7:1, which may be either Ain Jâlûd near Jezreel, or Ain el Jemmaîn near Beth-shan. He is probably to be identified with Shamhuth the Izrahite, general of the fifth division of the army (1 Chronicles 27:8), Izrahite being his family name.

Elika] Omitted in Chr., probably by accident, owing to the repetition of Harodite.

Verse 25. - Shammah the Harodite. The town Harod was in the plains of Jezreel, near Mount Gilboa. In 1 Chronicles 11:27 he is called "Shammoth the Harorite," the latter word being an easy corruption of Harodite; and in 1 Chronicles 27:8 he appears as "Shammuth the Izrahite," and has the command of the fifth brigade. "Izrahite" is by some regarded as an error for "the Zarhite," that is, a member of the clan descended from Zerah the son of Judah. But if so, how did he get to Hared? Elika. Omitted in Chronicles, probably through the repetition of the word "Harodite." 2 Samuel 23:25Heroes of the third class. - 2 Samuel 23:24. "Asahel, the brother of Joab, among the thirty," i.e., belonging to them. This definition also applies to the following names; we therefore find at the head of the list in the Chronicles, החילים וגבּורי, "and brave heroes (were)." The names which follow are for the most part not further known. Elhanan, the son of Dodo of Bethlehem, is a different man from the Bethlehemite of that name mentioned in 2 Samuel 21:19. Shammah the Harodite also must not be confounded with the Shammahs mentioned in 2 Samuel 23:11 and 2 Samuel 23:33. In the Chronicles we find Shammoth, a different form of the name; whilst ההרורי is an error in writing for החרדי, i.e., sprung from Harod (Judges 7:1). This man is called Shamhut in 1 Chronicles 27:8; he was the leader of the fifth division of David's army. Elika or Harod is omitted in the Chronicles; it was probably dropped out in consequence of the homoioteleuton החרדי.
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